According to Josephus Flavius, the first Roman procurator of Judea, Coponius (AD. 6-9) was sent by Augustus with power, including a “power to perform executions”. This power has been questioned regarding his successors. Some of the prefects in Judea seem to have lacked full authority in this respect. Historical sources seem to suggest that Judea was a subdivision of the larger province of Syria. The current study addresses the question of relationship between the legate of Syria and the governor of Judea, as well as the limits of the authority of the governor of Judea. Besides, we offer a presentation of the provincial governance in the Roman Empire, and a short introduction into the development of several institutions and judiciary matters. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the provincial governance and justice in Judea in which Jesus was condemned to death.