Journal index

Emődi András522 -- 532

Church history claimed that the somewhat official yearbook of the Reformed Church District of Királyhágómellék was first published in 1927, six years after the formation of the new church district in 1921. It was entitled The Illustrated Calendar of Reformed Orphanages (Református Árvaházi Képes Naptár), published continuously until 1949. However, a recent project of processing and digitalising contemporary press revealed new data on the publication of a yearbook both in 1923 and 1925. Despite both issues being printed in many thousands of copies, none of those calendars were preserved.

Református Szemle 116.5 (2023)Research articleChurch history, Various
Gaál Botond511 -- 521

Much of the geometric knowledge imparted in our school days was grounded in the realm of Euclidean axioms. Yet, such knowledge proves inadequate for comprehending the full spectrum of laws and structures governing nature. Non-Euclidean geometry emerges as an indispensable tool when grappling with the intricacies of unique curved surfaces. In 1823, János Bolyai, an outstanding student at the Reformed College of Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureș) in Transylvania, unveiled this innovative form of geometry. His groundbreaking contribution not only liberated the erstwhile axiomatic Euclidean world, ushering in fresh possibilities, but also elevated the realm of universal scientific thought to unprecedented heights.

Református Szemle 116.5 (2023)Research articleVarious
Fodor László485 -- 510

The communion cup of the Reformed parish of Érkeserű (Cheșereu, Romania) was originally a plate, which was melted down at the beginning of the 19th century and made into a chalice. Its history, which can be traced back to the last third of the 16 th century, is closely linked to the history of the parish and the local landowning families, especially the Suselith-Horváth family. This study corrects and supplements earlier literature by using archival sources and source publications. It shows who were the original owners of the silver chalice, how it came to the later donor and the social background of the donation. It describes the relationship of the family members with the Reformed Church.

Református Szemle 116.5 (2023)Research articleChurch history, Art history
Bacsó István471 -- 484

The Barth-Brunner debate is one of the significant moments of the Protestant theological history in the 20 th century. The replica-exchange of the two outstanding figures of dialectical theology in 1934 not only includes the theological centres of gravity of Karl Barth and Emil Brunner, but also gives insight into the sparkling theological and spiritual atmosphere of the 1930s. Brunner’s interpretation reveals a specific version of natural theology, while Barth, in the spirit of New Reformation Theology, expresses his position in terms of the authority of the Word. In this essay until we explore the content of some points of the debate, we also briefly reconstruct the circumstances of its origin, as well as we mention its history and evaluation in Transylvania.

Református Szemle 116.5 (2023)Research articleSystematic theology
Éles Éva445 -- 470

The study begins with the homiletical exegesis of 2 Corinthians 8:7–9. In the first major section, preparatory elements take centre stage. Throughout the exploration of the pericope's historical, exegetical, and theological dimensions, we delve into the relationship between Paul and the Corinthians, the collection for Jerusalem and theological motifs such as incarnation and offertory. The homiletical exegesis is followed by an outline for a Christmas sermon. The final points of the study provide additional perspectives and illustrations for shaping the worship service.

Református Szemle 116.5 (2023)Research articleNew Testament, Practical theology
Horváth József423 -- 425Református Szemle 116.4 (2023)In memoriamOther
Torkos Ákos412 -- 414Református Szemle 116.4 (2023)In memoriamOther
Bálint Péter360 -- 387

The author of the paper examines the representations of the story of the wedding at Cana in folklore texts, as well as in the interpretations of the non-biblical storytellers. The texts collected by the folklorists evoke the atmosphere of wedding celebrations and carnival festivities in local communities, and the expressions of the vernacular language reinforce the profane and humorous nature of what is narrated. The deviations from the biblical narrative are clearly visible in the symbolic motifs and episodes, as well as in the assessment of the actions of individual characters.

Református Szemle 116.4 (2023)Research articleNew Testament, Other
Bíró Beatrix333 -- 359

This is a follow-up to my study published in the previous issue of this journal. The concise concept of bibliotherapy encapsulates its fundamental principles: healing through literature. The method’s positive outcomes have spurred a resurgence in research, training and practical application in recent decades. In Hungary, this approach has yielded fruitful results, diversifying traditional psychological sessions and other forms of individual and group support, making it more accessible to those who may have hesitated to seek help otherwise. I envision a similar surge in the practice of congregational pastoral care if we establish a fresh framework for individual and group discussions through this method. This paper delves into the potential avenues for achieving this goal.

Református Szemle 116.4 (2023)Research articlePractical theology
Adorjáni Zoltán322 -- 322Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)AnnouncementSystematic theology, Other
Balogh Csaba321 -- 322Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)AnnouncementVarious
Kovács Sándor310 -- 310Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)AnnouncementOther
Klein Hans295 -- 304

This presentation advocates for the revival of theology as a craft, specifically by teaching theological students the craft of a theologian. To achieve this, it raises three questions: 1. What is the artisan mentality compared to the peasant mentality? 2. How should theology be understood as a craft, and how can it be taught as such? 3. Is it even permissible to pursue theology as a craft? In conclusion, it draws several insights: the theologian we increasingly need is a true artisan who continually learns, is willing to retrain to provide the best for the congregation; who becomes humble by projecting themselves and their theology; and who, while respecting the traditions of the fathers and the lives of Christian people, is ready to purify the Gospel from the sterile explanations of bygone eras and proclaim it as eternal truths.

Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)Research articleOther
Bíró Beatrix267 -- 294

The concise concept of bibliotherapy encapsulates its fundamental principles: healing through literature. The method’s positive outcomes have spurred a resurgence in research, training and practical application in recent decades. In Hungary, this approach has yielded fruitful results, diversifying traditional psychological sessions and other forms of individual and group support, making it more accessible to those who may have hesitated to seek help otherwise. I envision a similar surge in the practice of congregational pastoral care if we establish a fresh framework for individual and group discussions through this method. This paper delves into the potential avenues for achieving this goal.

Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament, Practical theology
Nagy Eszter237 -- 266

The primary objective of my research was to contextualise the psychological dimensions of attachment theory within a theological framework. Specifically, I aimed to scrutinise the broad spectrum of interpretations stemming from Bowlby’s work from a practical-theological perspective, with a particular focus on pastoral and pastoral-theological aspects. In doing so, I intend to construct a meaningful bridge between the realms of psychology and theology. In our contemporary, postmodern landscape, ministers assume a pivotal role as credible emissaries of certain values within the church community. The values they represent and the manner in which they do so are significantly influenced by their individual characteristics, including their prevailing attachment patterns and the emotions they experience in the course of their vocation. The first part of my research provided a concise overview of John Bowlby’s attachment theory and the various attachment patterns it delineates. In this subsequent section, I present the findings of an empirical study conducted among active ministers within the Reformed Church in Romania, with a particular emphasis on the identification of insecure attachment patterns among this group. Ministers were invited to fill in the questionnaire anonymously and voluntarily, offering insights into their personalities and attachment patterns. The outcomes of this analysis also furnish valuable insights for the pastoral community at large.

Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)Research articlePractical theology
Éles Éva221 -- 235

In the field of homiletics, one of the most intriguing questions is the dynamics of the text-pastor-preacher triad. It is notable that these constituent elements are often more amenable to individual scrutiny than when examined collectively. What constitutes the text? Who embodies the role of the preacher? And what precisely characterises the sermon? In contemporary discourse, we possess a clearer understanding of these components than ever before. This paper undertakes an analysis of the homiletic approach pioneered by Wilfried Engemann, particularly his formulation of "competent homiletics". Engemann’s approach delves into the constituent elements with greater granularity and nuance, thereby endeavouring to apprehend the intricate relationship among them with utmost precision. Furthermore, this essay underscores the essential prelude to the text-pastor-preacher triad, namely the hermeneutical text-author-reader triangle. It is imperative to recognise that the dynamics and efficacy of the former are significantly influenced by the operation of the latter. Given due consideration to this factor, this paper presents a model of scriptural interpretation that holds the potential to catalyse significant creative processes within the pastoral practice of preaching. The potential applications of this model will be explored within the context of The First Letter of Peter.

Református Szemle 116.3 (2023)Research articleNew Testament, Practical theology
Biró István182 -- 211

After the Treaty of Trianon, the Transylvanian Reformed Church found itself in a completely new and unprecedented situation. In the years following the change of empires, there was an ideological search not only in literature and public life but also within the church. The intellectual elites of Hungarian Transylvania, including the leaders, theological professors, and ministers of the Reformed Church, significantly contributed to this quest, with their reflections and thoughts still holding significant content and influence today. The aim of this study was to explore the publications that appeared between 1920 and 1944, placing them within a framework of intellectual and church history, and presenting them chronologically to depict the national worldview of the contemporary Reformed intellectuals. At the beginning of the study, we examined the concepts of Transylvanism and public service. Subsequently, we delved into the intellectual search of the 1920s and discussed the national existential issues and ideas based on the writings of the 1930s. Finally, we explored the emerging novel national worldview after 1940.

Református Szemle 116.2 (2023)Research articleChurch history
Sógor Géza169 -- 181

Nowadays, we often come across the concept of secularization. What did it mean in the past, and what does it mean today? This study explores the question, clarifies the terminology, outlines the brief history of the process, examines the biblical understanding of the phenomenon, identifies theological misconceptions, and sheds light on the possibilities, challenges, and tasks for Christian congregations within the process of secularization.

Református Szemle 116.2 (2023)Research articleSystematic theology
Nagy Eszter139 -- 168

Psychologist John Bowlby, the father of attachment theory, maintains that “attachment plays a fundamental role in human life from the cradle to the grave”. In my research, I bridge the gap between the psychologically grounded theory of attachment and pastoral theology. My aim is to shed light on how attachment patterns formed in childhood (secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-ambivalent and disorganized) influence adulthood, particularly the relational systems of pastors serving as leaders within congregations. To explore this, I employ empirical research methods. I outline the connections between identified attachment patterns and pastoral service in the context of Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT), and from a pastoral care perspective, I highlight possibilities for healing among individuals with insecure attachments within intimate relationships.

Református Szemle 116.2 (2023)Research articlePractical theology
Jónás Norbert Ferenc109 -- 138

In the intertestamental period, the term “proselyte” acquired the meaning of a pagan-born individual who converted to the Jewish faith. During this era, the prerequisites for conversion were formulated, and the sequence and significance of essential ritual acts were established. The Jewish diaspora was more receptive to proselytes compared to the Palestinian context. However, Roman citizens living in major imperial cities, who held contempt for Jewish communities, viewed proselytism negatively, considering it aggressive encroachment or a political maneuver by Jews. This study enquires into the phenomenon of proselytism within rabbinic literature, Alexandrian Philo and Josephus Flavius.

Református Szemle 116.2 (2023)Research articleNew Testament
Nagy Norbert76 -- 82

Man has always had the desire to unravel the mysteries of the universe. But in formulating his answers, he was confronted with the impossibility of defining everything through language. By secularising the myths, people have lost their connection with the poetic language, which can provide access to states beyond language. The solution may lie in rediscovering the power of the mystery. This could be done through the existential metaphor, and then man can become capable of experiencing the mystery of God again.

Református Szemle 116.1 (2023)EssayOther
Debreczeni István55 -- 75

In this paper we confront a provocative issue. Is Christianity responsible for the worsening environmental crisis? How can we interpret the dominium terrae mandate from the perspective of creation care? A contextual reading of the creation narratives reveals that the exercise of the dominion that God has given to man is subject to certain conditions and circumstances. Humanity is called to fulfil this mandate as the image of God, as part of the community of creation, living in the shadow of sin, but under God’s rule and with responsibility towards God. One possible metaphor for this multifaceted relationship is the stewardship, of which Jesus Christ himself is the source and example. The goal of dominion thus becomes responsible service rather than tyranny.

Református Szemle 116.1 (2023)Research articleSystematic theology
Kulcsár Árpád30 -- 54

The study was prepared for the 360th anniversary of the publication of the so-called Várad-Bible. In the context of the Hungarian New Testament translations of the 20th century, it examines the unique interpretations of László Ravasz’s translation published in 1971, as well as the in his commentaries to the New Testament given in Bible study groups within the church. The present research focuses mainly on chapters 17–18 of the Book of Revelation.

Református Szemle 116.1 (2023)Research articleNew Testament, Practical theology