Journal index

Márton János429 -- 451

This is a Hungarian translation of the tractate Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud emerged from the Mishnah. Our translation is based on Koren Talmud Bavli, The Noé Edition, Moed Katan, Hagiga (commentary by Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz), a Hebrew/ English Edition published by Koren Publisher, in Jerusalem (2014). In contrast to its name, this tractate’s central theme is the sacrifices brought for the festival days. One of those sacrifices is the peace offering of joy. The Jewish believer is endorsed to be joyful before his God when he appears before Him in his sanctuary.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleJudaica
Buzogány Dezső266 -- 275

First and foremost, the Protestantism sought to incorporate the first three disciplines of the seven liberal arts into the methodologies of scholarly theology and the curricula of school education. It also served the purpose of preparing seminary students for preaching the Word in their mother-tongue. Once they mastered the languages of the Two Testaments, dialectics (or logic) aided them in decoding the meaning (or the message) of the passage, while rhetorics guided them in composing a structurally sound sermon. (This threefold unity is still applied today in Hungarian theological education, albeit under a different name.) Dialectics is the foundation for the study of all sciences. Indeed, the potential benefits of certain scientific disciplines cannot be fully achieved without a thorough understanding of its principles. Therefore, as religious sermons are modelled after secular rhetoric, their structural features cannot be correctly assembled without resorting to the laws of philosophical dialectics

Református Szemle 113.3 (2020)Research articleChurch history
Papp Zsolt156 -- 164

The correct definition of sin is one of the main goals of Niebuhr’s theology. According to Scripture, sin is basically rebellion against God, meanwhile in society the same act generates injustice. The petty worry is considered the foreshadow of sin. By speaking of the myth of failure, Niebuhr does not intend to integrate sin into history but to portrait its constant reality and temptation. He distinguishes the morality of the individual in fighting against sin, from the morality of the community. At the same time, Niebuhr argues that pride is the source of man’s rebellion against God. He discovers human pride in every area of life unveiling fear of the finiteness of life as its main cause.

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology
Buzogány Dezső394 -- 400

A syllogism (Greek: συλλογισμός – “conclusion, inference”) is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. Aristotle defines the syllogism as “a discourse in which certain (specific) things having been supposed, something different from the things supposed results of necessity because these things are so”. The Aristotelian syllogism dominated Western philosophical thought for many centuries in the Middle Ages. But the history of syllogistic thinking does not end with the Middle Ages. It continued to be used even by the church reformers of the 16th century. Thus, alongside a dialectic way of thinking, it contributed to the development of the new dogmatics coined by the church reformers in the 16th century

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology, Church history
Juhász Zoltán242 -- 265

Eduard Böhl (1836–1903), a scholar of the second half of the nineteenth century, was professor of dogmatics at the Protestant Theological Faculty in Vienna for 35 years. His lifework was his “Dogmatics”, which he wrote for 23 years. In this unfairly forgotten work, he formulates cardinal Reformed beliefs providing the reader with accurate guidance regarding theology, anthropology, soterology, and eschatology. This study analyses Böhl’s teaching based on the last major chapter of his book, concerned with the “End of Times”. In order to gain a better understanding of the theological issues discussed by Böhl, this work parallels Gábor Szeremlei’s chapter on “Eschatology” which can be found in his book of Dogmatics entitled “Christian Religious Science”. A study of this issue provides insights into what theologians of the nineteenth century formulated in relation to this question, and how biblical approaches and ideas emerged within the debates of orthodox and liberal theology.

Református Szemle 113.3 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology
Herczeg Pál144 -- 155

Auf Grund von Markus 16,16 konnte festgestellt werden, daß der Inhalt des Glaubens folgendes ist: Erkennung der Person und der Taten des geschichtlichen Jesus und vor allem die Erkenntnis und der Empfang des Heils, das uns von ihm gereicht wird. Der Glaube gewinnt offensichtliche Stärkung und „Dokumentation“ in der Taufe. Das ist nicht „weniger“ als all jenes, was wir an anderen biblischen Stellen über die Taufe lesen können. Das hier Gesagte entspricht nur der Grundlage des Evangeliums von Markus: Ich glaube, …hilf meinem Unglauben! (9,24) Nach Matthäus 28,18–20 werden in der Taufe vor allem die Gemeinschaft mit Jesus Christus, bzw. die Gemeinschaft mit Gott der Heiligen Dreienigkeit samt allem Dazugehörenden und allen Forderungen zum Ausdruck gebracht. Ein Jünger Jesu zu sein bringt die Zugehörigkeit der menschlichen, empirischen Gemeinschaft mit sich. Das kann man nicht aus individueller Veranlassung und Sehnsucht erreichen, sondern nur durch die Tätigkeit der Jünger, der Apostel und Missionare. Obwohl wir da, in dieser Perikope, buchstäblich nicht über die Kirche lesen, ist hier doch, ihrem Wesen nach, die Rede über die Kirche.

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleNew Testament
Kulcsár Árpád523 -- 528

Translated by Fazakas Enikő, Kovács Zoltán, Kun Lajos, Némedi Gusztáv, Oláh Attila. A Debreceni Református Hittudományi Egyetem Gyakorlati Teológiai Tanszéke, Debrecen 2001, 132. old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewPractical theology
Papp Zsolt377 -- 392

As a theologian Niebuhr is best known for his “Christian Realism” which emphasized the persistent roots of evil in human life. In his works he stressed the egoism, the pride and hypocrisy of nations and classes. Later he saw these as ultimately the fruit of the insecurity and anxious defensiveness of humans in their finiteness. On the political field, his activities were influenced by his socialist-Christian convictions. Later he broke with the Socialist Party over its pacifist and non-interventionist attitude in foreign policy. He also constantly criticized the so-ciety dehumanized by the technological era.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Simon János667 -- 680

In the article below, I offer a systematic overview of the financial and accounting regulations in Romania, of the church’s internal regulations regarding financial and accounting obligations and customs, as well as some of the accounting principles. This article addresses primarily reformed pastors, church auditors and office managers who work with church bookkeeping, accounting and finances, but it can also be used by students, who inevitably need to become familiar with the rules of bookkeeping and financial management.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleOther
Bak Áron203 -- 212

In der Studie wollte uns der reformierte Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler Áron Bak (1945–2012) vorstellen, wie in der Malerei am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts und im 20. Jahrhundert die dynamische Bewegung durch Treppenmotive dargestellt wurde. Er stellt fest: Marcel James Duchamps und George James Framtons Bilder mit ihren Treppenmotiven widerspiegeln, daß Raum und Zeit, das heißt, daß das einheitliche Weltall, sowohl die menschliche als auch die göttliche Welt in sich zusammenfaßt, denn beide sind ja mit Goldtreppen miteinander verbunden.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleArt history
Bacsó István244 -- 268

Die persönlichen und kollektiven tragischen Erfahrungen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts haben den französischen Philosophen Emmanuel Lévinas dazu geleitet, das bekannte biblische Gebot wieder ins Licht zu bringen. Der Imperativ, du sollst nicht töten hat in der Philosophie von Lévinas eine paradigmatische Funktion. Auf einer Seite unterstreicht Lévinas die göttliche Originalität des Verbotes, auf der anderen Seite betont er, dass diese Aufforderung fürs jeweilige Ich gültig ist, denn auf dem Gesicht des anderen steht immer zu lesen: Du sollst nicht töten!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Enghy Sándor5 -- 16

Luke 24:31 relies on 2 Kgs 6:17. The terminology used in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament translation and the Greek Septuagint can be recognised behind the Syriac Peshitta and Hebrew New Testament translations. The morphological forms are passed on to the New Testament via the mediation of the Septuagint, although the verbal forms also expose the knowledge of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The intertextual relations of 2 Tim 4:17–18 suggest that this text is a summary of the entire Pauline corpus and, in a certain sense, the entire Scripture as well.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Koppándi Botond-Péter466 -- 480

A certain crisis has been around in the American Protestant preaching since the 1960’s. It was a crisis caused by boredom in the pews: people were listening to good sermons about the Christian faith, but they were not ignited by the flame of a real faith! The New Homiletic movement addressed this crisis offering narrative, inductive-style sermons, where the ancient Rhetorical notion of ‘delighting’ or delectare has become a key in turning the Christian faith into a personal conviction. Stories became regular parts of preaching, people felt a personal connection with the main characters in the stories, and suddenly they felt a close relationship with the Gospel manifested through these stories. This study presents the beginnings of the ‘narrative turn’ and discusses the necessity of more narrative, inductive-style, story-centered preaching from the Hungarian Protestant pulpits.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology
Orosz Otília Valéria645 -- 666

The history of men’s church choir in the Reformed Church of Cehu Silvaniei (Szilágycseh) dates back to more than a hundred years. Since its inception, it has taken a well-organised form, which like the presbyteries had its own management and financial fund. The men’s choir plays an exemplary role for singing culture in maintaining continuity, maintaining a repertoire of vocals preserved and passed on for decades, and in enhancing the quality of church and funeral services.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Fischl Vilmos631 -- 644

The author is a senior research fellow of the National University of Public Service and General Secretary of the Ecumenical Council of Churches in Hungary. He is an expert in international affairs, a Lutheran pastor, holding a PhD in Military Sciences. The author explores how the churches in Hungary can cooperate with the state in order to create security in Hungary and in other parts of the world. Readers may gain an understanding of the tasks and services of the Ecumenical Council and its member churches in Hungary with special regard to the helping of the persecuted Christians.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology, Spirituality
Görözdi Zsolt481 -- 493

Diese Studie untersucht das 4. Kapitel der Offenbarung aus homiletischer Sicht. Der Text (als Predigttext), der direkt auf die Kapitel 1–3 reagiert, verkündet die Botschaft in der Form- sprache der apokalyptischen Gattung. Eine Predigt über diesen Text fordert einen spezifischen Zugang, der das kodierte Kerygma zu finden versucht, während sie auch die durch apokalyptische Mittel angegebene Form ernst nimmt. Die Studie konzentriert sich auf das Narrative, (auf Geschehnisse) der Off. 4, den himmlischen Gottesdienst und die Herrschaft Gottes und zeigt, daß diese mit den zwei Hymnen des Kapitels und dem Verhalten der Hymne-Singenden zusammen die Botschaft bilden, die in der zeitgenössischen protestantischen Predigt wichtige gemeindebauende Funktion einnimmt.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology, New Testament
Rezi Elek537 -- 550

The first part of the study deals with the positive and negative effects of globalization. The process of globalization has effects on the environment, on culture, on religions, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical wellbeing in socie- ties around the world. The second part presents important and timely Christian social ethical answers to the challenges of globalization. These answers involve respect for life and Christian ethical values.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Fekete Károly107 -- 109Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)AnnouncementPractical theology
Fekete Csaba353 -- 376

This poem was composed by an unknown author to be sung according to the Geneva tune of the 45th Psalm (first published in 1545). The poem has never been published previously, having survived in an 18th century collection of biblical histories, in versified form, together with other prayers and Reformed church hymns. The main ideas of this poem clearly differ from the earlier version of the Song of songs composed in 1584 by an unitarian poet, Miklós Bogáti Fazakas. The 18th century poet was possibly a young minister or a college teacher. It is uncertain, but not impossible, that the author was a former student of the Debrecen Reformed College, since more than twenty members of the family, which preserved this manuscript, had studied in Debrecen bet-ween the middle 17th and the 19th centuries. This poem is the closest possible versification of the Hungarian version of the biblical text according to the Bible of Vizsoly from 1590, available in later editions. The poem does not emphasise that this biblical book would refer to the relationship between Christ and his Church. However, the Latin titles added all over the sections, identified as belonging to Bride and Bridegroom, or Sponsus and Sponsa, reflect the same allegorical view, following father Origen, and usually adopted by Protestant commenta-tors, including Calvin.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleHymnology
Juhász Tamás, Kiss Jenő494 -- 536

Als Otto Weber, der bekannte reformierte Theologe seine Intitution-Übersetzung ins moderne Deutsch 1938 veröffentlichte, bearbeitete er den Text in einer Weise, die den deutschen Lesern bis heute eine praktische Lesehilfe gibt. Um ihre Bedeutung zu verstehen, müssen wir die ursprüngliche Textordnung der Institution vor Augen halten. Die vier Bücher in Calvins Werk enthalten insgesamt 80 Kapitel. Calvin selbst schrieb als Kopfleiste sowohl zu den vier Büchern, als auch zu den 80 Kapiteln eine thesenartige Überschrift. Ein Kapitel zählt im Durchschnitt 15 bis 20 Seiten – für moderne Leser ein viel zu großer Umfang, kaum zu über- blicken. Zwar teilte Calvin die Kapitel in kleinere Abschnitte auf, die Ordnungszahlen erhielten, aber diese Nummerierung hilft kaum weiter. Nun verfasste Otto Weber zu jedem Kapitel der Institution etwa 20–50 Untertitel, welche den Inhalt der einzelnen Abschnitte angeben. Wenn man dieses ausführliche Inhaltsverzeichnis durchblättert, bekommt man einen schnellen und direkten Einblick sowohl in die Detailfragen, als auch einen Überblick auf das Ganze des calvinischen Denkens.

Durch die ungarische Übersetzung wollten der Übersetzer und der Lektor diese Lesehilfe als Weg zum besseren Verständnis Calvins den ungarischen Lesern zugänglich machen. Dadurch bekommt ihre praktische Übersetzungsarbeit auch einen wissenschaftlichen Wert.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Szabó András551 -- 558

This paper deals with two letters, dedicated by the Hungarian Protestant noblemen to Paul Eber, professor of the University of Wittenberg. The first letter was dated to the 3rd of April, 1561, its author being baron John Balassi, father of the great Hungarian renaissance poet, Bálint (Valentine) Balassi. John Balassi expresses his gratitude for Eber’s letter, dedicated to him and informed him about the earthquake which took place in the Danubian district, at the beginning of March. The second letter was dated to the 25th of June, 1563, its author was George Sulyok, uncle of Anne Sulyok, the spouse of John Balassi. Sulyok calls Eber’s attention to a student, recently sent to Wittenberg, named Peter Károlyi, the later professor, pastor and bishop of the Transtisza Diocese. He also asked Eber to pray for the Christian soldiers fighting against the Turks day by day.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Simon János192 -- 202

Many archaeologists are involved in excavations in the lands of the Bible, and each year an increasing number collection of artefacts are unearthed that offer us a glimpse on the background of the biblical history and texts. This article presents the top archaeological findings connected to the Bible, reported in 2018. The incredible treasures from the tomb of prophet Jonah came to light thanks to tunnels dug by ISIS. The “Yerushalayim” inscription on an ancient column dated to 100 B.C. is the first known appearance of the name of Jerusalem in Hebrew or Aramaic written in stone. The clay pomegranate found at Tel Shiloh is dating back to the First Iron Age, to the times of the Tabernacle of ancient Shiloh. An extremely rare seal impression discovered at Jerusalem’s Western Wall plaza and bearing the inscription “Belonging to the governor of the city” confirms specific biblical information. A tiny stone weight engraved with ancient Hebrew letters spelling the word Beka, dating to the First Temple period, was discovered in situ on the north of the early City of David. During the renewed excavations at the foot of the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a minuscule bulla or seal impression was discovered, with the text probably reading “Isaiah the prophet”. It was discovered in the same layer where some years ago a similar seal impression was found with the inscription: “Belonging to King Hezekiah of Judah.”

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Simon Attila229 -- 243

This paper discusses the lamentation genre of the Old Testament literature. Lamentation is connected to mourning, and can be found in the historical, prophetic and wisdom literature of the Old Testament. The genre is closely associated with the history of biblical Israel. Research concluded that the two dirges of David are unlikely to follow ancient qînâ-compositions. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the qînâ-texts in prophetic literature would not derive from early Israelite sources. However, positive evidence in this regard remains inconclusive due to our lack of access to those ancient sources mentioned in biblical literature.

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleOld Testament
Bustya Dezső615 -- 630

Beside his ministry, administrative tasks and teaching activities, Rvd. Dr. Dezső Bustya (February 2, 1935 – July 29, 2019) held lectures for ministers on various occasions. In the lecture published below, he interprets the narrative of judge Jephthah. He presents a historical, theological and exegetical analysis, followed by a summary of the homiletical aspects of this narrative.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleOld Testament
Petrőczi Éva559 -- 566

This study on Dr. Isaac Basire discusses two letters written by him during the final and most tragic days of the history of Transylvania. Both letters are dated to the final period of the younger Prince George Rákóczi’s reign. Basire was a true-born royalist, one of the nearest „best men” of King Charles I, who was beheaded by the Puritans. That was the reason why he had to leave England, his wife and 5 children for 15 years. His correspondence was edited and partially translated by an English theologian, W. N. Darnell. Through this great work, albeit not a spotless one, we learn that Isaac Basire was not only a cruel rival of János Apáczai Csere, the illustrious representative of Transylvanian Christian pedagogy, but a man deeply sympathising with and loyal to Translyvania and the Rákóczi family during the hard, final days of their rule.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán105 -- 106Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)BibliographyNew Testament, Various
Simon János341 -- 352

This article discusses aspects related to the Jewish self-governance in the 1st century A.D. We attempt to inquire into the following questions: What powers did the Sanhedrin who condemned Jesus have during the Roman rule? Did it have any authority to inflict death penalty? What were the rules of procedure in case of the Sanhedrin?

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Bak Áron62 -- 78

Die alte, jämmerliche, oder zum Spott preisgegebene Gestalt des ewigen Wanderers Ahasver aus der Legende erscheint liebenswürdig auf dem Gemälde von Miloš Alexander Bazovský. Deswegen finden wir sie uns, in unserer eigenen Welt ganz nahestehend, die für uns trotz aller Analyse immer unerkennbarer wird. Doch dürfte sie immer heimischer sein, denn wir können nur in dieser Gestalt unserer menschlichen Bestimmung, Userem ursprünglichen menschlichen Schicksal wirklich entsprechen.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleArt history
Bagosi József153 -- 191

The author sums up the results of 30 years of exploration within all available ecclesiastical and archival documents. The author also collected data from the living traditions from ethnographic sources in the county. He illustrates his contentions with archive materials and newly made photos.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleChurch history