Journal index

Buzogány Dezső53 -- 62

When speaking of Reformation and Humanism, we tend to connect them to each other. But as we come closer to the essence of each, we discover their substantially different nature. The gist of Humanism is the human nature. On statues and paintings of the Renaissance the man is portrayed as a great, powerful, almost almighty person. On the other hand, Reformation places God, Christ, salvation, reconciliation etc. at the centre of its teaching. Humans are included too, but only as sideliners, as weak, infirm, needy, helpless figures. Nevertheless, Reformation has benefited to a significant extent from Humanism via its emphasis on the grammar for mastering the languages of the Scripture (Hebrew and Greek), dialectics striving to a better understanding of the scriptural message, and rhetorics as a substantial technical help spreading the Gospel. Therefore, teaching these disciplines at the universities of the Reformation has become of major importance during the 16th century.

Református Szemle 113.1 (2020)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán182 -- 182Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)ReportSystematic theology
Debreczeni István377 -- 393

Jürgen Moltmann unfolds the creative dialogue of theology and natural sciences along the subjects of creation and evolution. The earlier mechanistic and deterministic worldview collapsed as a result of the scientific discoveries of the 20th century. Moltmann observes a surprising parallel between the scientific theory on the one hand, and the Christian teaching about creation eschatologically oriented towards the future of God, on the other.

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology
Kulcsár Árpád523 -- 528

Translated by Fazakas Enikő, Kovács Zoltán, Kun Lajos, Némedi Gusztáv, Oláh Attila. A Debreceni Református Hittudományi Egyetem Gyakorlati Teológiai Tanszéke, Debrecen 2001, 132. old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewPractical theology
Simon János224 -- 241

According to Josephus Flavius, the first Roman procurator of Judea, Coponius (AD. 6-9) was sent by Augustus with power, including a “power to perform executions”. This power has been questioned regarding his successors. Some of the prefects in Judea seem to have lacked full authority in this respect. Historical sources seem to suggest that Judea was a subdivision of the larger province of Syria. The current study addresses the question of relationship between the legate of Syria and the governor of Judea, as well as the limits of the authority of the governor of Judea. Besides, we offer a presentation of the provincial governance in the Roman Empire, and a short introduction into the development of several institutions and judiciary matters. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the provincial governance and justice in Judea in which Jesus was condemned to death.

Református Szemle 113.3 (2020)Research articleVarious
Pleșu Andrei118 -- 143

Jesus’ speech is not mere utopia but an acting force. It is this basic recognition along which the authoritative contemporary thinker interprets the parables of the Gospel. The interpretation faithfully reproduces the text, being original at the same time. In the view of this author, intellect instilled in our hearts, the unavoidable commitment, acting according to hearing, and breaking down ideological thinking reconquers for us precisely that inner space “which is essential to find our homes outside this world.” (S. Béla Visky, translator). Andrei Pleşu refuses to subordinate the parables of Jesus to philosophy, to any of the newer methodologies, or to contemporary political-ideological attitudes. Unlike many former and current church leaders, he seeks to be a follower of the Master by turning against the temptation of ideology (including those haunting intellectuals today) and attempting to stay away from all institutional “sedentarism” (including the academic one). (István Berszán)

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleSpirituality, New Testament
Ledán M. István616 -- 644

In this study, we briefly outline the possible sources of a disputation written by the Transylvanian polyhistor Sámuel Kaposi and make reserved statements about the authorship and originality of this disputation. Our aim is to draw attention to this interesting text, which is perhaps the first Hungarian work dealing with spiritual desertion, a topic peculiar to English and Dutch Puritans.

Református Szemle 113.6 (2020)Source editionChurch history
Kulcsár Árpád32 -- 52

In this paper I examined one of the effects of László Ravasz’s theological thinking, namely the development of his spiritual life and its impact on his position as a scholar of theology. Due to the limitations of the scope of this paper, I present the lesser known views of Ravasz’s work on mission. Among others, John R. Mott’s lecture in Cluj-Napoca provides clues that the young Ravasz approached the tasks of pastoral ministry, preaching, dissemination of the gospel, theological education in a modern and relevant manner. This approach was not perfect, but it helped to bring about a new impetus for the Hungarian Protestant worldview that was stuck in rationalism and liberalism and for Protestant theology in general to start off towards the dialectical theology. Ravasz was an authentic representative of this transition

Református Szemle 113.1 (2020)Research articlePractical theology
Bekő István Márton353 -- 376

Der Autor legt den Text von Mk 6,34–44 mit Hilfe des rezeptionskritischen Modells aus. Die rezeptionskritische Tetxtanalyse benutzt neue und alte hermeneutische Begriffe auf der Frontlinie der Schöpfung. Die leserorientierten Aspekte der Auslegung sind mit den historischkritischen Ergebnissen der Exegese verbunden. Die Vielfältigkeit der theologischen Fragestellung des Textes ist in Zusammenhang mit der Lebenssituation der Adressaten präsentiert. Dadurch ist zwischen den heutigen und den ersten Lesern/-Innen des Evangeliums ein aktiver Dialog zustandegekommen.

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articleNew Testament
Kulcsár Árpád491 -- 522

In this paper I present a thorough examination of Laszló Ravasz’s publications from the period 1901–1903, when he was a student of the Protestant Theological Seminary and the State University of Cluj/Kolozsvár. In this period, he shows signs of uncertainty whether to become a Reformed minister or a journalist, novelist, or critic. This period of life of a student is typically characterised by an interest in almost everything. He writes more than forty poems, short novels, theatrical critics, but most often he relates about the student life in the magazine Kolozsvári Egyetemi Lapok. He attempts to follow well-known journalist of his time. His descriptive writings demonstrate how good a writer he was already in the early years of his career.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleChurch history
Pleșu Andrei193 -- 223

Jesus’ speech is not mere utopia but an acting force. It is this basic recognition along which the authoritative contemporary thinker interprets the parables of the Gospel. The interpretation faithfully reproduces the text, being original at the same time. In the view of this author, intellect instilled in our hearts, the unavoidable commitment, acting according to hearing, and breaking down ideological thinking reconquers for us precisely that inner space “which is essential to find our homes outside this world.” (S. Béla Visky, translator). Andrei Pleşu refuses to subordinate the parables of Jesus to philosophy, to any of the newer methodologies, or to contemporary political-ideological attitudes. Unlike many former and current church leaders, he seeks to be a follower of the Master by turning against the temptation of ideology (including those haunting intellectuals today) and attempting to stay away from all institutional “sedentarism” (including the academic one). (István Berszán)

Református Szemle 113.3 (2020)Research articleNew Testament, Spirituality
Papp György539 -- 541

Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftdsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte. Band 26. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2020, ISBN-10: 3110671360; ISBN-10: 3110671360, 237 old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewChurch history
Magyar Norbert101 -- 117

In his well-known metaphor, the Book of Hosea describes the relation between YHWH and the people of Israel through the marriage imagery. Contemporary scholarship treats this metaphor in different ways. The diverging interpretations derive, on the one hand, from the dissimilar understandings of the cultic circumstances of Hosea’s age, involve high uncertainty. Moreover, the text of Hosea is regarded as one of the most challenging compositions in the Hebrew Bible. Finally, from a redaction-historical point of view Hosea is again a very complex book that needs careful approach. The most debated question concerning Hosea and the fertility cult seems to be the existence or absence of an institution of sacred prostitution within the ancient world. A decisive conclusion in this regard is impossible at the moment. While recent studies tend to question the existence of this practice, our analysis allows interpreting Hos 4,14 as a description of a sacred prostitute. The proposal that this woman, termed ‎ קְדֵשָׁה, should be regarded as person having a devoted cultic role, is worth considering. Nonetheless, based on the meagre amount of data at our disposal, this study argues that her sexual activity did not stem from this role itself, but from her loose morals and willingness of attracting partners. Within the necessary limits of a case study, the resources and texts reviewed by us hig

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleOld Testament
Kulcsár Árpád588 -- 615

In this paper I present an in-depth analysis of the writings of László Ravasz from the period 1903–1906. During this period, he graduated from the Protestant Theological Institute, the State University at Kolozsvár/Cluj, and spent a year of PhD research in Berlin. He started publishing in the journal Erdélyi Protestáns Lap mostly in the domain of religious studies. He still adheres to the liberal wing of theology, but in this period, he slowly starts to shift towards the so-called value theology, a much modern way of the long-standing liberalism.

Református Szemle 113.6 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology, Church history, Practical theology
Orosz Otília Valéria14 -- 31

For centuries, our hymnbooks bring to the fore not only the issue of musical literacy but also tradition. The Reformed church singing in Transylvania and the Partium was determined by traditions rather than by the sheet music itself. From the beginning of the 19th century the Transylvanian hymnbooks were created under the influence of the spirit of the time. A typical example of this is the hymnbook edited under the influence of theological rationalism in 1837. The hymnbook, edited by Seprődi János in 1908, only partially corrected the melody deterioration while the edition of 1923 further preserved the sorting of cut and leveled melodies, which lacked psalms and old Hungarian songs. If we compare the 1837 hymnbook with the one published in 1921 in Debrecen, which also provides balanced melodies, we can see that melodies enriched with melisma remain in practice in Transylvania and this tradition is still preserved in many places to this day.

Református Szemle 113.1 (2020)Research articleHymnology
Józsa Bertalan309 -- 352

The current study aims to investigate the procedure of metaphorical creativity in the Gospel of John, using the “living bread” linguistic metaphor as a case study. The article is structured into three main sections. Following a brief introduction, the first section deals with the conceptual metaphor theory which serves as the methodological framework of the analysis; the second section carves out the background and textual analysis of the “living water” and “living bread” metaphors; and the third section demonstrates the interaction of the two metaphorical networks and points to the main argument that “living bread” was created through and stimulated by the well-known conventional metaphor “living water” in the conceptual system of the Gospel.

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articleNew Testament
Buzogány Dezső482 -- 490

This overview of Melanchthon’s dialectic is far from being complete. He continues to present the rules of scientific thinking and the theoretical and practical methods. But the short survey, which covers the essence of his scholarly view, shows a clear intention and effort on his behalf to “domesticate” the classical (pagan) science of thinking in view of their adoption by the Protestant churches.  He believed that by doing so, he was advancing the science of the Word, as far as the preparation to the church service is concerned. He was aware that the classical scholarship of humanism could improve Protestant theology, which was to become more erudite, while enriching church sermons with more depth and substance. The overview also shows Melanchthon’s deep commitment to pedagogy, and his concern to be useful to both his students and pastors by elaborating on and strengthening the specific Christian theology of the century. By this he inscribed his name forever into the memory book of the Protestant science and pedagogy.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán190 -- 192Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)ReportOld Testament, New Testament
Steiner József416 -- 419Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)ReviewNew Testament, Systematic theology
Steiner József537 -- 539

Evangéliumi Kiadó – Koinónia Kiadó, 2020, ISBN: 978-615-5624-84-1, 978-615-5624-85-8 pdf, 978-615-5624-86-5 epub, 978-615-5624-87-2 mob, 78 old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewMissiology, Spirituality
Orosz Otília Valéria569 -- 587

The congregations of the Reformed Church District of Királyhágómellék and Transylvania replaced the older hymnbooks twenty years ago. The replacement of 1921 hymnbook, previously used in the Partium region, and of the 1923 hymnbook used in Transylvania, opened a new chapter in the church singing practice. When comparing the origin and style layer of the songs in the two hymnbooks, the difference is striking, especially with respect to the 19th century melodies and the amount of 18–19th century ad notam songs in the 1921 hymnbook. From a structural point of view, the Hungarian Reformed Hymnbook focuses mostly on the hymns of the Reformation era and the German choral melodies, quantitatively closely followed by the Anglo-Saxon and Romantic hymns. The other valuable medieval, baroque and 20th century hymns are present in a merely symbolic proportion. During a hymnbook revision, it is not enough to drop rarely used or undervalued hymns. Rather, hymns with weakened influence need to be replaced. This is how we should approach our new hymnbook published nearly a quarter of a century ago. Its substantially new material should be regarded as a “profit” that needs to be discovered repeatedly and adopted in our worship services.

Református Szemle 113.6 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology, Hymnology
Herczeg Pál5 -- 13

Diese Studie hebt aufgrund Kolosser 2,8–15 hervor, daß sowohl die alttestamentliche Beschneidung, als auch die neutestamentliche Taufe character indelibile sind. Wer an Beschneidung teil hatte, lebt erstens in der Gemeinschaft Gottes Erwählten, zweitens wird er dadurch verpflichtet nach Gottes Willen zu leben. Die Taufe bedeutet Gemeinschaft mit Christus, mit seinem Tod, seiner Begrabung und Auferstehung. Die Taufe ist nicht bloß Freisprechung von den Sünden, sondern auch eine Befreiung aus der Gewalt geistiger und kosmischer Mächte. Auf diese Weise schließt die Taufe jede andere Knechtschaft, jeden Dienst und etwaige Gehorsamkeit aus. Im Briefe an die Galater 2, 20 wird die neue Existenz der Getauften folgendermaßen zusammengefaßt: Mit Christus bin auch ich gekreuzigt: ich lebe aber doch nun nicht ich, sondern Christus lebt in mir.

Református Szemle 113.1 (2020)Research articleNew Testament
Buzogány Dezső165 -- 172

The Reformation highly esteemed the classical scientific disciplines as far as they contributed to a better understanding of the gospel. The method was delivered by the Humanism and Renaissance. Consequently, the reformers, whose primary concern was studying the word of God in original (Hebrew and Greek), started to master both languages right from the beginning. Hebrew helped them to learn and understand God’s will in the Old Testament in its original setting, while Greek improved their grip on the message of the New Testament. When preparations for ministry had started in the Protestant universities, both languages were self-evidently taken over in the educational process. The present paper deals with Melanchthon’s appreciation of the Greek language.

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleChurch history, Systematic theology, New Testament
Juhász Zoltán452 -- 481

The present study examines from the perspective of dogmatics Eduard Böhl’s book entitled Christologie des Alten Testamentes oder Auslegung der wichtigsten Messianischen Weissagungen published in 1882. The study deals mainly with the introductory chapter. E. Böhl, professor of Reformed Systematic Theology at the Protestant Theological Faculty in Vienna from 1864 to 1899, was strongly influenced by the theological vision of H. F. Kohlbrugge (1803–1875), a Reformed pastor from Elberfeld, Germany. As a systematic theologian he followed the orthodox Reformed position which emphasised the inseparable unity of Scripture. From this hermeneutic stance he defended the Christology of the Old Testament. Böhl testified that God in Christ, in fact, repeated, confirmed, and accomplished on a higher level what had happened in the lives of Old Testament confessors. Old Testament writings legitimize Jesus’ coming, incarnation, salvation, suffering, death, and resurrection. The essence of Böhl’s standpoint is that some of the messianic texts do not refer directly to Christ, but above all to “types”, figures who carry the promise of salvation. Other parts, however, such as the psalms discussed in detail in his book, are unequivocal pieces of evidence of the promises of the Messiah who is embodied in Jesus Christ. In support of his view, he cited “the exegesis of the New Testament,” the apostles and evangelists, and the Targums, the Book of Enoch, and the Talmud among the Jewish religious literature. With his theological vision and writings, through his Hungarian disciples, Böhl exerted a decisive influence on the Reformed theological thinking and the New Orthodoxy in Hungary. This theological trend took up the fight against the spread of theological liberalism with its centre in Debrecen during the second half of the nineteenth century. Böhl, as a defender of traditional Calvinism, was a sure point of reference with respect to important theological issues.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology
Simon János401 -- 415

The current article is the second part of a wider project, which aims to offer a systematic overview of the finance and accounting regulations in Romania pertinent to the churches, as well as of the church’s internal regulations regarding financial and accounting obligations and customs, and some accounting principles. In this part we focus on cash management, banking and budget. This paper is written primarily for Reformed ministers, students preparing for ministry, as well as church auditors working in church bookkeeping, accounting and finances.

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articlePractical theology
Steiner József534 -- 537

Translated by Székely György, Gondáné Kaul Éva, Pálhegyi Kriszta, Daray Erzsébet. Harmat–KIA, Budapest 2020, ISBN 978-963-288-034-1, 568 old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewPractical theology, Missiology, Spirituality
Bak Áron309 -- 312

Edvard Munch’s Bild, Tanz des Lebens, das auch sezessionistische Züge aufweist, stellt nicht die Freude der Tänzer dar, sondern es zeigt wie die Verbindung zwischen Mann und Frau in dem Wirbel des Lebens ist: Das auf der linken Seite stehende Mädchen in weißem Kleid wartet darauf im Tanz an die Reihe kommen zu können, während die dunkelgekleidete ältere Frau ist schon aus dem Paartanz herausgetreten. Sehr treffend ist diese Stimmung im Gedicht des siebenbürgischen Dichters und Malers Lajos Páll von Korond ausgedrückt: Wenn das kein Tanz ist!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleArt history
Adorjáni Zoltán451 -- 465

Dieser Vortrag wurde 2019 im Rahmen der Pfarrerweiterbildung zum Thema „Auch der Pfarrer ist ein Mensch“ gehalten. Es wird auf Grund Galater 1,2–2,10 erörtert, was hinter fol-genden Worten des Apostels verborgen ist: „…das Evangelium, das von mir gepredigt ist, nicht von menschlicher Art ist. Denn ich habe es nicht von einem Menschen empfangen oder gelernt, sondern durch eine Offenbarung Jesu Christi.“ (11–12) Der Vortrag möchte auch auf zwei Fragen Antwort geben: a) Wie sich Saulus’, d. h. Paulus’ persönliches Gotterlebnis, seine Bekehrung und der Traditionsinhalt des verkündigten Evangeliums zueinander verhalten? b) Wie Paulus die Gewißheit seiner Berufung durch die beweisende Haltung der kirchlichen Gemeide erhält?

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Sarnyai Csaba Máté143 -- 152

In this study we analyse some aspects of Sándor Makkai’s approach to religion. According to Makkai, the most important and most fundamental question of religious psychology is the mysterious origin of religion. When this question is answered, the essence of the essence of the psychology of religion will also be identified. Philosophy, social studies, science, sociopsychology and empirical psychology all intend to address issues familiar within the realms of the psychology of religion, including the aforementioned focal question. Makkai points out why the disciplines mentioned cannot, in his view, correctly approach psychology of religion and define religion itself. Makkai argues that the epistemological psychology of Károly Böhm provides the most fitting psychological description of the origins of religion. With this starting point, he delineates his interpretation of the concept of religion and of the religious experience.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology