Journal index

Orosz Otília Valéria645 -- 666

The history of men’s church choir in the Reformed Church of Cehu Silvaniei (Szilágycseh) dates back to more than a hundred years. Since its inception, it has taken a well-organised form, which like the presbyteries had its own management and financial fund. The men’s choir plays an exemplary role for singing culture in maintaining continuity, maintaining a repertoire of vocals preserved and passed on for decades, and in enhancing the quality of church and funeral services.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Papp Zsolt377 -- 392

As a theologian Niebuhr is best known for his “Christian Realism” which emphasized the persistent roots of evil in human life. In his works he stressed the egoism, the pride and hypocrisy of nations and classes. Later he saw these as ultimately the fruit of the insecurity and anxious defensiveness of humans in their finiteness. On the political field, his activities were influenced by his socialist-Christian convictions. Later he broke with the Socialist Party over its pacifist and non-interventionist attitude in foreign policy. He also constantly criticized the so-ciety dehumanized by the technological era.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Oláh Róbert567 -- 580

The aim of our study is to examine the designation “Calvinist” in the works of Hungarian Reformed theologians of the early modern age. Theologians mostly formulated their views on this subject within disputes with Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholics accused the Protestants of following the teachings of the reformers rather than those of Christ. The Calvinists consistently brought their church in connection with Christ. They rejected to call the church Calvinist mainly because of dogmatic considerations, claiming the primary place to Christ’s role in the redemption. Reformed theologians stressed that they did not receive baptism in Calvin. In the course of these disputes, they referred to the First letter of the Apostle Paul to the Corinthians. From a church historical viewpoint, it was a key issue to settle whether Calvinist churches originated in Christ or in Calvin – the latter involving accusations of innovation and heresy. With the appearance of István P. Czeglédi (1619–1671) a tactical shift can be witnessed. A number of theologians conditionally accepted the attributive use of the designation “Calvinist”, while others continued to reject it.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Fischl Vilmos631 -- 644

The author is a senior research fellow of the National University of Public Service and General Secretary of the Ecumenical Council of Churches in Hungary. He is an expert in international affairs, a Lutheran pastor, holding a PhD in Military Sciences. The author explores how the churches in Hungary can cooperate with the state in order to create security in Hungary and in other parts of the world. Readers may gain an understanding of the tasks and services of the Ecumenical Council and its member churches in Hungary with special regard to the helping of the persecuted Christians.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology, Spirituality
Bak Áron203 -- 212

In der Studie wollte uns der reformierte Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler Áron Bak (1945–2012) vorstellen, wie in der Malerei am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts und im 20. Jahrhundert die dynamische Bewegung durch Treppenmotive dargestellt wurde. Er stellt fest: Marcel James Duchamps und George James Framtons Bilder mit ihren Treppenmotiven widerspiegeln, daß Raum und Zeit, das heißt, daß das einheitliche Weltall, sowohl die menschliche als auch die göttliche Welt in sich zusammenfaßt, denn beide sind ja mit Goldtreppen miteinander verbunden.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleArt history
Bacsó István244 -- 268

Die persönlichen und kollektiven tragischen Erfahrungen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts haben den französischen Philosophen Emmanuel Lévinas dazu geleitet, das bekannte biblische Gebot wieder ins Licht zu bringen. Der Imperativ, du sollst nicht töten hat in der Philosophie von Lévinas eine paradigmatische Funktion. Auf einer Seite unterstreicht Lévinas die göttliche Originalität des Verbotes, auf der anderen Seite betont er, dass diese Aufforderung fürs jeweilige Ich gültig ist, denn auf dem Gesicht des anderen steht immer zu lesen: Du sollst nicht töten!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Győri L. János581 -- 591

Das Reformierte Kollegium von Debrecen als Mutterschule versah bis ins 19. Jahrhundert hinein Hunderte von seinen Partikelschulen auf dem Lande mit Lehrkräften (Rektoren oder Präceptoren), Lehrplänen und Schulbüchern, weshalb es als die „Schule des Landes“ bezeichnet wurde. Die Studie liefert an Hand von Quellen im Archiv des Kollegiums wichtige Beiträge zur Geschichte der Partikelschule in Nagyharsány (Komitat Baranya). Die ersten Spuren der schulischen Beziehungen der beiden Orte stammen aus dem Jahre 1671. Sehr intensiv waren die Kontakte in den Jahren zwischen 1763–1813. In dieser Periode waren in den reichen Marktflecken insgesamt 18 Rektoren, deren kurzer Lebenslauf und auch ihr Belohnungsverzeichnis aus dem Jahre 1799 dargelegt werden.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Bustya Dezső615 -- 630

Beside his ministry, administrative tasks and teaching activities, Rvd. Dr. Dezső Bustya (February 2, 1935 – July 29, 2019) held lectures for ministers on various occasions. In the lecture published below, he interprets the narrative of judge Jephthah. He presents a historical, theological and exegetical analysis, followed by a summary of the homiletical aspects of this narrative.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleOld Testament
Geréb Zsolt592 -- 598

In diesem Vortrag wollte ich das geistliche Profil der Reformierten Gemeinde Mócs (Mociu) zeichnen. Die Geschichte der Gemeinde zeigt, dass die Mitglieder der Kirchengemeinde An- fang des 20. Jahrhunderts ins Dorf Mociu eingezogen sind. Sie haben ihre religiöse Frömmigkeit und kulturelle Tradition von ihrer ersten Gemeinde mitgebracht. In ihrer neuen Gemeinschaft haben sie den reformierten Glauben und die ungarische Sprache vorgefunden. Diese zwei sind jetzt die Grundsteine ihrer Identität.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleOther, Spirituality
Fekete Károly107 -- 109Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)AnnouncementPractical theology
Fekete Csaba353 -- 376

This poem was composed by an unknown author to be sung according to the Geneva tune of the 45th Psalm (first published in 1545). The poem has never been published previously, having survived in an 18th century collection of biblical histories, in versified form, together with other prayers and Reformed church hymns. The main ideas of this poem clearly differ from the earlier version of the Song of songs composed in 1584 by an unitarian poet, Miklós Bogáti Fazakas. The 18th century poet was possibly a young minister or a college teacher. It is uncertain, but not impossible, that the author was a former student of the Debrecen Reformed College, since more than twenty members of the family, which preserved this manuscript, had studied in Debrecen bet-ween the middle 17th and the 19th centuries. This poem is the closest possible versification of the Hungarian version of the biblical text according to the Bible of Vizsoly from 1590, available in later editions. The poem does not emphasise that this biblical book would refer to the relationship between Christ and his Church. However, the Latin titles added all over the sections, identified as belonging to Bride and Bridegroom, or Sponsus and Sponsa, reflect the same allegorical view, following father Origen, and usually adopted by Protestant commenta-tors, including Calvin.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleHymnology
Simon János192 -- 202

Many archaeologists are involved in excavations in the lands of the Bible, and each year an increasing number collection of artefacts are unearthed that offer us a glimpse on the background of the biblical history and texts. This article presents the top archaeological findings connected to the Bible, reported in 2018. The incredible treasures from the tomb of prophet Jonah came to light thanks to tunnels dug by ISIS. The “Yerushalayim” inscription on an ancient column dated to 100 B.C. is the first known appearance of the name of Jerusalem in Hebrew or Aramaic written in stone. The clay pomegranate found at Tel Shiloh is dating back to the First Iron Age, to the times of the Tabernacle of ancient Shiloh. An extremely rare seal impression discovered at Jerusalem’s Western Wall plaza and bearing the inscription “Belonging to the governor of the city” confirms specific biblical information. A tiny stone weight engraved with ancient Hebrew letters spelling the word Beka, dating to the First Temple period, was discovered in situ on the north of the early City of David. During the renewed excavations at the foot of the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a minuscule bulla or seal impression was discovered, with the text probably reading “Isaiah the prophet”. It was discovered in the same layer where some years ago a similar seal impression was found with the inscription: “Belonging to King Hezekiah of Judah.”

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Simon Attila229 -- 243

This paper discusses the lamentation genre of the Old Testament literature. Lamentation is connected to mourning, and can be found in the historical, prophetic and wisdom literature of the Old Testament. The genre is closely associated with the history of biblical Israel. Research concluded that the two dirges of David are unlikely to follow ancient qînâ-compositions. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the qînâ-texts in prophetic literature would not derive from early Israelite sources. However, positive evidence in this regard remains inconclusive due to our lack of access to those ancient sources mentioned in biblical literature.

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleOld Testament
Bak Áron62 -- 78

Die alte, jämmerliche, oder zum Spott preisgegebene Gestalt des ewigen Wanderers Ahasver aus der Legende erscheint liebenswürdig auf dem Gemälde von Miloš Alexander Bazovský. Deswegen finden wir sie uns, in unserer eigenen Welt ganz nahestehend, die für uns trotz aller Analyse immer unerkennbarer wird. Doch dürfte sie immer heimischer sein, denn wir können nur in dieser Gestalt unserer menschlichen Bestimmung, Userem ursprünglichen menschlichen Schicksal wirklich entsprechen.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleArt history
Adorjáni Zoltán451 -- 465

Dieser Vortrag wurde 2019 im Rahmen der Pfarrerweiterbildung zum Thema „Auch der Pfarrer ist ein Mensch“ gehalten. Es wird auf Grund Galater 1,2–2,10 erörtert, was hinter fol-genden Worten des Apostels verborgen ist: „…das Evangelium, das von mir gepredigt ist, nicht von menschlicher Art ist. Denn ich habe es nicht von einem Menschen empfangen oder gelernt, sondern durch eine Offenbarung Jesu Christi.“ (11–12) Der Vortrag möchte auch auf zwei Fragen Antwort geben: a) Wie sich Saulus’, d. h. Paulus’ persönliches Gotterlebnis, seine Bekehrung und der Traditionsinhalt des verkündigten Evangeliums zueinander verhalten? b) Wie Paulus die Gewißheit seiner Berufung durch die beweisende Haltung der kirchlichen Gemeide erhält?

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Adorjáni Zoltán105 -- 106Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)BibliographyNew Testament, Various
Simon János341 -- 352

This article discusses aspects related to the Jewish self-governance in the 1st century A.D. We attempt to inquire into the following questions: What powers did the Sanhedrin who condemned Jesus have during the Roman rule? Did it have any authority to inflict death penalty? What were the rules of procedure in case of the Sanhedrin?

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Bagosi József153 -- 191

The author sums up the results of 30 years of exploration within all available ecclesiastical and archival documents. The author also collected data from the living traditions from ethnographic sources in the county. He illustrates his contentions with archive materials and newly made photos.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Kovács Sándor49 -- 61

The aim of the paper is to trace a historical line of how the Unitarian ministers were trained at the Unitarian Theological Seminary of Kolozsvár. The first part shortly presents the most important stages of the Seminary beginning with the 16th century. The second part discusses the role of the newly elected Unitarian professors of the Seminary in the Transylvanian Unitarian Church especially during the beginning of totalitarian regime.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Bak Áron309 -- 312

Edvard Munch’s Bild, Tanz des Lebens, das auch sezessionistische Züge aufweist, stellt nicht die Freude der Tänzer dar, sondern es zeigt wie die Verbindung zwischen Mann und Frau in dem Wirbel des Lebens ist: Das auf der linken Seite stehende Mädchen in weißem Kleid wartet darauf im Tanz an die Reihe kommen zu können, während die dunkelgekleidete ältere Frau ist schon aus dem Paartanz herausgetreten. Sehr treffend ist diese Stimmung im Gedicht des siebenbürgischen Dichters und Malers Lajos Páll von Korond ausgedrückt: Wenn das kein Tanz ist!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleArt history
Koppándi Botond-Péter466 -- 480

A certain crisis has been around in the American Protestant preaching since the 1960’s. It was a crisis caused by boredom in the pews: people were listening to good sermons about the Christian faith, but they were not ignited by the flame of a real faith! The New Homiletic movement addressed this crisis offering narrative, inductive-style sermons, where the ancient Rhetorical notion of ‘delighting’ or delectare has become a key in turning the Christian faith into a personal conviction. Stories became regular parts of preaching, people felt a personal connection with the main characters in the stories, and suddenly they felt a close relationship with the Gospel manifested through these stories. This study presents the beginnings of the ‘narrative turn’ and discusses the necessity of more narrative, inductive-style, story-centered preaching from the Hungarian Protestant pulpits.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology
Sarnyai Csaba Máté143 -- 152

In this study we analyse some aspects of Sándor Makkai’s approach to religion. According to Makkai, the most important and most fundamental question of religious psychology is the mysterious origin of religion. When this question is answered, the essence of the essence of the psychology of religion will also be identified. Philosophy, social studies, science, sociopsychology and empirical psychology all intend to address issues familiar within the realms of the psychology of religion, including the aforementioned focal question. Makkai points out why the disciplines mentioned cannot, in his view, correctly approach psychology of religion and define religion itself. Makkai argues that the epistemological psychology of Károly Böhm provides the most fitting psychological description of the origins of religion. With this starting point, he delineates his interpretation of the concept of religion and of the religious experience.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Magyar Balázs Dávid17 -- 48

John Calvin transformed the theology and law of sex, marriage and family life. Building on a generation of Protestant reformers, Calvin constructed a comprehensive new theology and law that made the conclusion and dissolution of marriage, the nurturing and welfare of children, family cohesion and support, sexual sin and crime essential concerns for both church and state. He drew the Consistory and Council of Geneva into a creative new alliance to guide and govern the reformation of the intimate domestic sphere. Calvin and his colleagues applied and adapted this new theology in hundreds of marriage and family-related lawsuits that were passed before the Consistory each year. „He set out his theological and ethical reforms in rich number of sermons, commentaries, and systematic writings” (John Witte). Despite the efforts of the Consistory and Council of Geneva, there were numerous cases of homosexuality, paedophilia, sexual assault, and bestiality, which made Calvin constantly anxious. He believed, if magistrates do not punish sexual crimes (e.g. adultery, fornication, sodomy), “a door will be thrown open for any kind of treachery, for poisoning, and murder, and robbery” and “Paul therefore denounces punishment not only on adulterers, but also on fornicators, for both depart from the holy institution of God”. For this reason, Calvin admitted, it would be good to drive out such public fornicators from the city in order to avoid scandals and to keep them from abusing themselves by fornication. Calvin’s legal and theological standpoint was: there is a greater danger in not punishing the crime or hiding the punishment, than in exerting a public and exemplary punishment with the aim of prevention. This is why the Genevan Council applied death penalty so often. But Calvin continued to preach about the Grace of God day after day.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleChurch history, Systematic theology
Görözdi Zsolt481 -- 493

Diese Studie untersucht das 4. Kapitel der Offenbarung aus homiletischer Sicht. Der Text (als Predigttext), der direkt auf die Kapitel 1–3 reagiert, verkündet die Botschaft in der Form- sprache der apokalyptischen Gattung. Eine Predigt über diesen Text fordert einen spezifischen Zugang, der das kodierte Kerygma zu finden versucht, während sie auch die durch apokalyptische Mittel angegebene Form ernst nimmt. Die Studie konzentriert sich auf das Narrative, (auf Geschehnisse) der Off. 4, den himmlischen Gottesdienst und die Herrschaft Gottes und zeigt, daß diese mit den zwei Hymnen des Kapitels und dem Verhalten der Hymne-Singenden zusammen die Botschaft bilden, die in der zeitgenössischen protestantischen Predigt wichtige gemeindebauende Funktion einnimmt.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology, New Testament
Rezi Elek537 -- 550

The first part of the study deals with the positive and negative effects of globalization. The process of globalization has effects on the environment, on culture, on religions, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical wellbeing in socie- ties around the world. The second part presents important and timely Christian social ethical answers to the challenges of globalization. These answers involve respect for life and Christian ethical values.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Szabó András551 -- 558

This paper deals with two letters, dedicated by the Hungarian Protestant noblemen to Paul Eber, professor of the University of Wittenberg. The first letter was dated to the 3rd of April, 1561, its author being baron John Balassi, father of the great Hungarian renaissance poet, Bálint (Valentine) Balassi. John Balassi expresses his gratitude for Eber’s letter, dedicated to him and informed him about the earthquake which took place in the Danubian district, at the beginning of March. The second letter was dated to the 25th of June, 1563, its author was George Sulyok, uncle of Anne Sulyok, the spouse of John Balassi. Sulyok calls Eber’s attention to a student, recently sent to Wittenberg, named Peter Károlyi, the later professor, pastor and bishop of the Transtisza Diocese. He also asked Eber to pray for the Christian soldiers fighting against the Turks day by day.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Gaal György284 -- 308

This article commemorates Péter Nagy at the 200th anniversary of his birth. Péter Nagy was the son of a tailor in Cluj/Kolozsvár and became one of the greatest Calvinist bishops. He studied at the Calvinist College of Kolozsvár and later at Göttingen University. In 1841 he was elected minister of the Reformed community from Cluj/Kolozsvár. He became a teacher of biology and later of theology at the Calvinist College. He translated many literary volumes from English and French. Nagy had an important role in founding the Transylvanian Museum Society, of which he was elected vice-president in 1869. He was also a member of the Hungarian Parliament. In 1866 he was promoted as bishop in his church. He was an excellent preacher and the reorganizer of the Transylvanian Reformed Church.

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Kozma Zsolt82 -- 86Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)BibliographyOld Testament, Various
Juhász Tamás, Kiss Jenő494 -- 536

Als Otto Weber, der bekannte reformierte Theologe seine Intitution-Übersetzung ins moderne Deutsch 1938 veröffentlichte, bearbeitete er den Text in einer Weise, die den deutschen Lesern bis heute eine praktische Lesehilfe gibt. Um ihre Bedeutung zu verstehen, müssen wir die ursprüngliche Textordnung der Institution vor Augen halten. Die vier Bücher in Calvins Werk enthalten insgesamt 80 Kapitel. Calvin selbst schrieb als Kopfleiste sowohl zu den vier Büchern, als auch zu den 80 Kapiteln eine thesenartige Überschrift. Ein Kapitel zählt im Durchschnitt 15 bis 20 Seiten – für moderne Leser ein viel zu großer Umfang, kaum zu über- blicken. Zwar teilte Calvin die Kapitel in kleinere Abschnitte auf, die Ordnungszahlen erhielten, aber diese Nummerierung hilft kaum weiter. Nun verfasste Otto Weber zu jedem Kapitel der Institution etwa 20–50 Untertitel, welche den Inhalt der einzelnen Abschnitte angeben. Wenn man dieses ausführliche Inhaltsverzeichnis durchblättert, bekommt man einen schnellen und direkten Einblick sowohl in die Detailfragen, als auch einen Überblick auf das Ganze des calvinischen Denkens.

Durch die ungarische Übersetzung wollten der Übersetzer und der Lektor diese Lesehilfe als Weg zum besseren Verständnis Calvins den ungarischen Lesern zugänglich machen. Dadurch bekommt ihre praktische Übersetzungsarbeit auch einen wissenschaftlichen Wert.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology