Journal index

Bagosi József269 -- 283

This publication commemorates József Takács, Reformed minister and patron of the Reformed congregation in Berettyószéplak (Suplacu de Barcău). The author of the article collected the memoirs of the Reformed ministers who followed József Takács in his congregation, as well as archival materials, oral memoirs and photographs.

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Győri L. János581 -- 591

Das Reformierte Kollegium von Debrecen als Mutterschule versah bis ins 19. Jahrhundert hinein Hunderte von seinen Partikelschulen auf dem Lande mit Lehrkräften (Rektoren oder Präceptoren), Lehrplänen und Schulbüchern, weshalb es als die „Schule des Landes“ bezeichnet wurde. Die Studie liefert an Hand von Quellen im Archiv des Kollegiums wichtige Beiträge zur Geschichte der Partikelschule in Nagyharsány (Komitat Baranya). Die ersten Spuren der schulischen Beziehungen der beiden Orte stammen aus dem Jahre 1671. Sehr intensiv waren die Kontakte in den Jahren zwischen 1763–1813. In dieser Periode waren in den reichen Marktflecken insgesamt 18 Rektoren, deren kurzer Lebenslauf und auch ihr Belohnungsverzeichnis aus dem Jahre 1799 dargelegt werden.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Geréb Zsolt592 -- 598

In diesem Vortrag wollte ich das geistliche Profil der Reformierten Gemeinde Mócs (Mociu) zeichnen. Die Geschichte der Gemeinde zeigt, dass die Mitglieder der Kirchengemeinde An- fang des 20. Jahrhunderts ins Dorf Mociu eingezogen sind. Sie haben ihre religiöse Frömmigkeit und kulturelle Tradition von ihrer ersten Gemeinde mitgebracht. In ihrer neuen Gemeinschaft haben sie den reformierten Glauben und die ungarische Sprache vorgefunden. Diese zwei sind jetzt die Grundsteine ihrer Identität.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleOther, Spirituality
Enghy Sándor5 -- 16

Luke 24:31 relies on 2 Kgs 6:17. The terminology used in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament translation and the Greek Septuagint can be recognised behind the Syriac Peshitta and Hebrew New Testament translations. The morphological forms are passed on to the New Testament via the mediation of the Septuagint, although the verbal forms also expose the knowledge of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The intertextual relations of 2 Tim 4:17–18 suggest that this text is a summary of the entire Pauline corpus and, in a certain sense, the entire Scripture as well.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Orosz Otília Valéria645 -- 666

The history of men’s church choir in the Reformed Church of Cehu Silvaniei (Szilágycseh) dates back to more than a hundred years. Since its inception, it has taken a well-organised form, which like the presbyteries had its own management and financial fund. The men’s choir plays an exemplary role for singing culture in maintaining continuity, maintaining a repertoire of vocals preserved and passed on for decades, and in enhancing the quality of church and funeral services.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Visky Sándor Béla36 -- 46

This paper is an analysis of the text entitled Pardonner?, published in 1971 by the French philosopher Vladimir Jankélévitch. This paper is, to a certain extent, a counterpoint, to Jankélévitch’s earlier writing, Le Pardon (1967). This earlier publication is a calm indicative, while the later publication poses a question: Pardonner? Of course, this latter is not a suspension of what had been written before, but it shows that the creative yes of forgiveness can easily be made irrational and, thus, questionable by a lack of repentance, the tormentor’s arrogance which leads him to think he is indeed worthy of the immeasurable gift offered to him by the victim.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Bekő István Márton375 -- 396

Bei der Betrachtung des Textes von Mk 4,35–41 verwendet der Author die Begriffe des rezeptionskritischen Modelles, wie Empfänger, Leerstelle, implizierte Leser, Leserenzyklopädie usw. Die leserorientierten Aspekte sind mit den historisch-kritischen Ergebnissen verbunden. Die christologische und soteriologische Fragestellungen des Textes sind im Zusammenhang mit der Lebenssituation der Adressaten präsentiert. Der Versuch einer Auslegung aus der Perspektive der Erstleser/innen zu verfassen, bringt die Wundererzählung in die Verfassungszeit zurück, und öffnet Dialog zwischen den heutigen und damaligen Lesern/innen des Evangeliums.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Rácz Emese534 -- 546

The relocation of the Reformed Theological Faculty from Aiud to Cluj in 1895 was preceded by a heavy dispute lasting several decades, and settled ultimately by the clash between Bishop Domokos Szász, promoting the relocation to Cluj, and Professor Ödön Kovács, militating for the stay of the institution at Aiud. The debate on the closure of the theological institution of Aiud was clearly one of the topics of everyday discussion during the final quarter of the 19th century, as reflected in contemporary newspaper articles. This study scrutinizes the related articles of one of these local newspapers, Közérdek (Public interest) during the year 1896, when the theological institution of Aiud was finally closed.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Magyar Balázs Dávid564 -- 565Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Kozák Péter640 -- 654

In the first part of the essay, we summarise the constitutive elements of the concept of justification in the Reformation. These elements are the iustitia Christi aliena, Jesus’ substitutionary atonement as historical basis, Calvin’s unio mystica cum Christo and Luther’s “happy exchange”, the concept of sola fide, the principle that “faith is not a merit” and the “true faith contains true knowledge as well”, the forensic context of justification, imputatio is not infusio, the sharp distinction between justification and sanctification, the truth of simul iustus et peccator, the justification as existential experience and the adoption of all believers. In the second part, we inquire how Paul Tillich, in his Systematic Theology, reinterprets the concept of justification compared to the classic authors of the Reformation. It will be shown that Tillich basically changes the cognitive content of justification. The essay does not address the historical development of the concept of justification from Luther to Tillich, but concentrates only on the comparison of Tillich and the theology of the Reformation.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Kovács Krisztián25 -- 35

Following the democratic transformations of 1989, the churches in Hungary had to face the altering of their former social position. While the churches were not neglected anymore, they were unprepared to occupy their places in the civil society. The change was especially challenging for local congregations who had to fight the eroding folk church structures. Should the church wish to occupy a prominent position in the civil society, serious social commitment and proper mediation of the Gospel are both equally important. The church needs to take a proactive role.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Aalders Maarten Johan203 -- 219

Towards the end of 1918, the Kingdom of Hungary was close to a collapse. Diplomatic interventions of all kinds tried to prevent this, and the Protestant churches were also asked to intervene. The Hungarian churches sent a delegation to The Netherlands. Members of these delegations, among them Géza Antal and Jenő Sebestyén, spoke with a number of Protestant sympathizers, like A. Kuyper and H. Colijn. The Dutch Protestant churches issued a statement warning against the danger that was threatening the Protestants in Hungary. According to Antal they were the first to issue a warning. But was there really an official report? Until now my research has not led to any firm indication in this respect.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán365 -- 374

Philon von Alexandrien war, infolge seiner Abstammung und Erziehung, fest an die griechische Philosophie gebunden. Er war unzertrennlich zugleich Philosoph und Theolog, genauer gesagt ein Religionsphilosoph. Er hielt die Thora für eine absolute Autorität. Mit seiner allegorischen Schriftauslegung wollte er beweisen, daß die heiligen Schriften nicht nur eine zuverlässige Fundgrube der göttlichen Wahrheiten, sondern zugleich auch der Philosphie darstellen. Mit allen ihren Einzelheiten verkünden sie moralische und geistige Weisungen, die mit der Lehre der zeitgenössischen griechischen Philosophien in Einklang sind. Philon hatte eine eigenartige Deutung für den Satz 1. Mose 1,27 nach der Septuaginta: „und schuf sie als Mann und Weib“. Nach seiner Sicht bedeutete es, daß die Keuschheit des therapeutischen Zölibats und die Keuschheit der weiblichen Therapeuten als Daseinsform und Qualität der Existenzweise des am Anfang geschaffenen Menschen näher steht.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleJudaica
Sven Grosse523 -- 533

Der Vortrag würdigt zu Beginn Philipp Melanchthons Bedeutung für die Reformation und den Aufbau des Bildungswesens in Siebenbürgen und wendet sich dann seinem theologischen Hauptwerk, den Loci theologici zu. Während unter dem Einfluß des Neuprotestantismus die frühen Loci von 1521 starke Beachtung erhalten hatten, waren die späteren Fassungen der Loci in den Ruf geraten, Melanchthon habe hier seinen reformatorischen Elan verloren. Melanchthon nennt jedoch auch in seiner letzten Ausgabe der Loci 1559 die Lehre von der Rechtfertigung den Hauptinhalt der christlichen Botschaft. Er focussiert hier den Begriff Glaube: die Stellvertretung Christi für sich geschehen sein lassen, und Gnade. Melanchthon macht hier deutlich, daß der „forensische“ Charakter seiner Rechtfertigungslehre nicht bedeutet, daß der Mensch betrachtet würde, als ob er aufgrund seiner moralischen Qualität gerecht wäre – es aber nicht ist –, sondern daß Rechtfertigung das Angenommensein der Person durch Gott besagt, das verbunden und zugleich unterschieden ist von einer anfangenden moralischen Veränderung.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Bak Áron691 -- 702

Als Einleitung benützt der Autor drei Vesperbilder von Michelangelo Bounarrotti, und nach der Analisierung der Pieta des Ursulaner Klosters von Erfurt (1320 és 1330), beschreibt er die Eigentümlichkeiten der Vesperbilder von den 15–16. Jahrhunderten. Mit dem Thema der Pieta in weltlichem und menschlichem Bezug begann man sich betont erst seit dem 19. Jh. zu beschäftigen. In der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jh. erschien dieses Thema als Rückwirkung auf die Unmenschlichkeiten des herrschenden Nationalsozialismus. Diese Rückwirkung zeigte sich nicht nur in der europäischen bildenden Kunst, sondern in allen der Welt.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleArt history
Hermán M. János79 -- 89

Mrs. Csekefalvi Tamás Béláné recorded some valuable data concerning the pastoral care of hundreds of Reformed and Catholic people who became refugees in 1940, when they left their village Györgyfalva and fled to the nearby city of Kolozsvár/Cluj-Napoca. This Christian lady was also involved in cultural and social work which she pursued together with others, and so she organised the “Cultural Association for Refugees from Györgyfalva”. The Association took up the education and cultural entertainment of the younger refugees, and the high standards of these activities were also applied to the cultivation of the rich traditions of the people of village Györgyfalva. The committee members – a list of their names was preserved –, helped the refugees to find work, and assisted those sent to court-martial to gain back their freedom. During the communist era in Romania it was not possible to share these stories of personal or communal suffering.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Gaal György306 -- 336

This study presents the life and activity of Sándor Berde (1856–1894). Berde was born in a little village in Seklers’ Land. He studied in and graduated from the Reformed College of Nagyenyed (Aiud). He continued his studies in Vienna, Jena and Basel. He became an adherent of the liberal theology having a predilection for scientific results instead of the old religious teachings. During his studies in Jena, he specialized himself in New Testament theology. After his return to Transylvania, he became the missionary minister of the parish in Kackó (Câţcău). Eight other villages belonged to his parish. The Hungarian population lived very scattered in this area, continually diminishing in number. So the minister was in a very difficult situation. In 1889 Berde took the private-docent-exam at the Nagyenyed Theological Academy. This was the period of the foundation of the Reformed Theological Faculty of Kolozsvár (Cluj). So the Church Council elected Berde as a professor of the Faculty in Kolozsvár, and sent him temporarily to teach at Nagyenyed. This was a very unpleasant situation. He taught there New Testament for four school years being much appreciated by his colleagues and the students. He died of tuberculosis. Though he was the very first professor of the Faculty of Kolozsvár, he is never mentioned as such in historical works. He is mostly appreciated as the father of his children: one daughter became a novelist, the other a painter; the youngest son was a famous dermatologist.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Szegedi László Tamás625 -- 639

This paper is a revised version of a lecture presented on October 16, 2018, in a conference entitled “Diminishing Church, Increasing Responsibilities”, organised by the Union of Reformed Ministers in Transylvania. The author, general director of the Reformed Church District of Transylvania, sketches the new challenges awaiting the church workers of diminishing congregations in the fields of catechisation, bible study, youth work, diaconia, and leader training.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)EssayMissiology
Adorjáni Zoltán7 -- 24

Diese Arbeit ist eine redaktierte Version eines Vortrags. Darin werden die Eroberungen von Alexander des Großen und die palästinischen Ereignisse in der Regierungszeit der Ptolemaischen und Seleukidischen Könige skizziert. Es wird hier, auf dem Grunde des 1 Makkabäer dargestellt, wie sich die typologische Schriftauslegung im Laufe des 2. Jahrhunderts nach Christus erneuert und verstärkt hat.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleOld Testament, Judaica
Kolumbán Vilmos József194 -- 202

This text edition presents the opinion of the Reformed bishop, Zsigmond Eperjesi, and the eparchial notary, Máté Keresztes, in the case of Samuel Endemann. As their documents make clear, the bishop and the eparchial notary were representatives of the orthodox Reformed church, and determined supporters of the creeds of the traditional Reformed church. The letter reveals that the investigation of Endemann was initiated by the leaders of the Reformed church. In his letter, the bishop briefly stated his view that Endemann’s manual contradicted the creeds of the Reformed Church in Transylvania, even if in these ideas had long been canonized in Western theological thought. Following the Endemann investigations, János Bodola and János Zilahi Sebes received instructions from the Consistory and the Reformed Church leadership that Endemann’s manuals should not be used in educating systematic theology.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Source editionChurch history
Gaál Botond509 -- 522

Numerous debates are evoked nowadays based on the disability of establishing an interdisciplinary harmony between Christian thought and exact sciences. It may therefore be necessary to review the main fields of the human intellect, thus sciences, philosophies, arts, religions, and Christian theology. The present study provides an overview of these areas focused on their subjects, methods and views, aiming to clarify its title.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Szász Tibor András607 -- 624

This paper is a revised version of a lecture presented on October 16, 2018, in a conference entitled “Diminishing Church, Increasing Responsibilities”, organised by the Union of Reformed Ministers in Transylvania. The author, who is also trained in church law, experiments with interdisciplinary methods. He is active as a spiritual counsellor and mentor even outside the church. He argues that the main danger for the church is not its diminishing numbers but rather its disintegration and dissolution, loosing it main traits, attractiveness and impact. He points to fields where the church needs to change its perspectives and be more effective.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articlePractical theology, Spirituality
Kolumbán Vilmos József62 -- 78

This paper presents the apology of János Bodola, professor of Nagyenyed, accused of heresy in 1791. Like his accused associate, Bodola also dismissed the charge of heresy, but did not deny that theological thinking should be renewed. In his letter, he also rejected Arminian, Pelagian, and Universalist accusations, stood up to Samuel Endemann’s orthodoxy, and condemned the lack of consensus among the confessions. According to his letter, Bodola was a supporter of the Reformed liberal orthodoxy who in matters of principles of faith remained devoted to the creeds of reformed confessions, without secluding himself from the innovations within theology.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Ősz Sándor Előd436 -- 448

Die Studenten der reformierten Hochschulen haben sich in der Frühen Neuzeit ins Immatrikulationsbuch der Hochschulen handschriftlich mit der Formel Ego N. N. subcribo legibus scholae reformatae... eingetragen. Die 1895 im Klausenburg (ung. Kolozsvár, heute Cluj-Napoca) gegründete Reformierte Theologische Fakultät hat dieser Tradition unter ihren Studenten als Praxis wieder eingeführt. Ab der Gründung der Hochschule in Klausenburg bis 1948 hat sich jeder Student handschriftlich immatrikuliert. Bei der Immatrikulation sollte neben seinen Namen jeder auch noch sein Geburtsort, die Name und den Beruf des Vaters oder Widerhaltes angeben, sowie das Gymnasium wo er dem Abitur abgelegt hatte und weitere Daten über seinen Kenntnissen in Fremdsprachen im Immatrikulationsbuch einführen. Die statistische Verarbeitung dieser Angaben macht uns möglich spannende Daten und merkwürdige Zusammenhänge über der sozialen Herkunft und Hintergrund der Pfarrergesellschaft der reformierten und teilweise über der ungarischlutherischen Pfarrer in Siebenbürgen zu erschließen.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Petrov Anita287 -- 305

This study deals with the life and works of minister, teacher and bishop Lajos Erőss (1857– 1911). The first part of the article focuses on his theological studies. In the second part, we address various aspects of his ministry in the church and his activity as a bishop.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Kulcsár Árpád170 -- 193

This paper discusses the necessity of dialogue about the topic of creation among theology, philosophy and natural sciences. I argue that philosophy has a bridge-building role between theology and natural sciences. I aim to show why the mediation of philosophy cannot be neglected, and why a holistic approach in such an important theme as creation is necessary. I shall also invoke the ideas of László Ravasz (1882–1975) and point out that the synthesis which he argued for in his scientific papers is still useful today.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology