Journal index

Adorjáni Zoltán190 -- 192Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)ReportOld Testament, New Testament
Steiner József416 -- 419Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)ReviewNew Testament, Systematic theology
Juhász Zoltán452 -- 481

The present study examines from the perspective of dogmatics Eduard Böhl’s book entitled Christologie des Alten Testamentes oder Auslegung der wichtigsten Messianischen Weissagungen published in 1882. The study deals mainly with the introductory chapter. E. Böhl, professor of Reformed Systematic Theology at the Protestant Theological Faculty in Vienna from 1864 to 1899, was strongly influenced by the theological vision of H. F. Kohlbrugge (1803–1875), a Reformed pastor from Elberfeld, Germany. As a systematic theologian he followed the orthodox Reformed position which emphasised the inseparable unity of Scripture. From this hermeneutic stance he defended the Christology of the Old Testament. Böhl testified that God in Christ, in fact, repeated, confirmed, and accomplished on a higher level what had happened in the lives of Old Testament confessors. Old Testament writings legitimize Jesus’ coming, incarnation, salvation, suffering, death, and resurrection. The essence of Böhl’s standpoint is that some of the messianic texts do not refer directly to Christ, but above all to “types”, figures who carry the promise of salvation. Other parts, however, such as the psalms discussed in detail in his book, are unequivocal pieces of evidence of the promises of the Messiah who is embodied in Jesus Christ. In support of his view, he cited “the exegesis of the New Testament,” the apostles and evangelists, and the Targums, the Book of Enoch, and the Talmud among the Jewish religious literature. With his theological vision and writings, through his Hungarian disciples, Böhl exerted a decisive influence on the Reformed theological thinking and the New Orthodoxy in Hungary. This theological trend took up the fight against the spread of theological liberalism with its centre in Debrecen during the second half of the nineteenth century. Böhl, as a defender of traditional Calvinism, was a sure point of reference with respect to important theological issues.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleSystematic theology
Steiner József534 -- 537

Translated by Székely György, Gondáné Kaul Éva, Pálhegyi Kriszta, Daray Erzsébet. Harmat–KIA, Budapest 2020, ISBN 978-963-288-034-1, 568 old.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)ReviewPractical theology, Missiology, Spirituality
Herczeg Pál5 -- 13

Diese Studie hebt aufgrund Kolosser 2,8–15 hervor, daß sowohl die alttestamentliche Beschneidung, als auch die neutestamentliche Taufe character indelibile sind. Wer an Beschneidung teil hatte, lebt erstens in der Gemeinschaft Gottes Erwählten, zweitens wird er dadurch verpflichtet nach Gottes Willen zu leben. Die Taufe bedeutet Gemeinschaft mit Christus, mit seinem Tod, seiner Begrabung und Auferstehung. Die Taufe ist nicht bloß Freisprechung von den Sünden, sondern auch eine Befreiung aus der Gewalt geistiger und kosmischer Mächte. Auf diese Weise schließt die Taufe jede andere Knechtschaft, jeden Dienst und etwaige Gehorsamkeit aus. Im Briefe an die Galater 2, 20 wird die neue Existenz der Getauften folgendermaßen zusammengefaßt: Mit Christus bin auch ich gekreuzigt: ich lebe aber doch nun nicht ich, sondern Christus lebt in mir.

Református Szemle 113.1 (2020)Research articleNew Testament
Buzogány Dezső165 -- 172

The Reformation highly esteemed the classical scientific disciplines as far as they contributed to a better understanding of the gospel. The method was delivered by the Humanism and Renaissance. Consequently, the reformers, whose primary concern was studying the word of God in original (Hebrew and Greek), started to master both languages right from the beginning. Hebrew helped them to learn and understand God’s will in the Old Testament in its original setting, while Greek improved their grip on the message of the New Testament. When preparations for ministry had started in the Protestant universities, both languages were self-evidently taken over in the educational process. The present paper deals with Melanchthon’s appreciation of the Greek language.

Református Szemle 113.2 (2020)Research articleChurch history, Systematic theology, New Testament
Marjovszky Tibor549 -- 568

Der Para-Traktat der Mischna erklärt unter dem Titel die „Die rote Kuh“ die Bestimmun­gen bezüglich 4 Mose 19. Nach einer kurzen Einleitung folgt die Übersetzung von drei Kapi­teln mit kurzen Sacherklärungen. Dies ist die erste ungarische Übersetzung des Textes.

Református Szemle 113.6 (2020)Source editionJudaica
Simon János401 -- 415

The current article is the second part of a wider project, which aims to offer a systematic overview of the finance and accounting regulations in Romania pertinent to the churches, as well as of the church’s internal regulations regarding financial and accounting obligations and customs, and some accounting principles. In this part we focus on cash management, banking and budget. This paper is written primarily for Reformed ministers, students preparing for ministry, as well as church auditors working in church bookkeeping, accounting and finances.

Református Szemle 113.4 (2020)Research articlePractical theology
Márton János429 -- 451

This is a Hungarian translation of the tractate Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud emerged from the Mishnah. Our translation is based on Koren Talmud Bavli, The Noé Edition, Moed Katan, Hagiga (commentary by Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz), a Hebrew/ English Edition published by Koren Publisher, in Jerusalem (2014). In contrast to its name, this tractate’s central theme is the sacrifices brought for the festival days. One of those sacrifices is the peace offering of joy. The Jewish believer is endorsed to be joyful before his God when he appears before Him in his sanctuary.

Református Szemle 113.5 (2020)Research articleJudaica
Bak Áron203 -- 212

In der Studie wollte uns der reformierte Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler Áron Bak (1945–2012) vorstellen, wie in der Malerei am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts und im 20. Jahrhundert die dynamische Bewegung durch Treppenmotive dargestellt wurde. Er stellt fest: Marcel James Duchamps und George James Framtons Bilder mit ihren Treppenmotiven widerspiegeln, daß Raum und Zeit, das heißt, daß das einheitliche Weltall, sowohl die menschliche als auch die göttliche Welt in sich zusammenfaßt, denn beide sind ja mit Goldtreppen miteinander verbunden.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleArt history
Papp Zsolt377 -- 392

As a theologian Niebuhr is best known for his “Christian Realism” which emphasized the persistent roots of evil in human life. In his works he stressed the egoism, the pride and hypocrisy of nations and classes. Later he saw these as ultimately the fruit of the insecurity and anxious defensiveness of humans in their finiteness. On the political field, his activities were influenced by his socialist-Christian convictions. Later he broke with the Socialist Party over its pacifist and non-interventionist attitude in foreign policy. He also constantly criticized the so-ciety dehumanized by the technological era.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Magyar Balázs Dávid17 -- 48

John Calvin transformed the theology and law of sex, marriage and family life. Building on a generation of Protestant reformers, Calvin constructed a comprehensive new theology and law that made the conclusion and dissolution of marriage, the nurturing and welfare of children, family cohesion and support, sexual sin and crime essential concerns for both church and state. He drew the Consistory and Council of Geneva into a creative new alliance to guide and govern the reformation of the intimate domestic sphere. Calvin and his colleagues applied and adapted this new theology in hundreds of marriage and family-related lawsuits that were passed before the Consistory each year. „He set out his theological and ethical reforms in rich number of sermons, commentaries, and systematic writings” (John Witte). Despite the efforts of the Consistory and Council of Geneva, there were numerous cases of homosexuality, paedophilia, sexual assault, and bestiality, which made Calvin constantly anxious. He believed, if magistrates do not punish sexual crimes (e.g. adultery, fornication, sodomy), “a door will be thrown open for any kind of treachery, for poisoning, and murder, and robbery” and “Paul therefore denounces punishment not only on adulterers, but also on fornicators, for both depart from the holy institution of God”. For this reason, Calvin admitted, it would be good to drive out such public fornicators from the city in order to avoid scandals and to keep them from abusing themselves by fornication. Calvin’s legal and theological standpoint was: there is a greater danger in not punishing the crime or hiding the punishment, than in exerting a public and exemplary punishment with the aim of prevention. This is why the Genevan Council applied death penalty so often. But Calvin continued to preach about the Grace of God day after day.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleChurch history, Systematic theology
Adorjáni Zoltán451 -- 465

Dieser Vortrag wurde 2019 im Rahmen der Pfarrerweiterbildung zum Thema „Auch der Pfarrer ist ein Mensch“ gehalten. Es wird auf Grund Galater 1,2–2,10 erörtert, was hinter fol-genden Worten des Apostels verborgen ist: „…das Evangelium, das von mir gepredigt ist, nicht von menschlicher Art ist. Denn ich habe es nicht von einem Menschen empfangen oder gelernt, sondern durch eine Offenbarung Jesu Christi.“ (11–12) Der Vortrag möchte auch auf zwei Fragen Antwort geben: a) Wie sich Saulus’, d. h. Paulus’ persönliches Gotterlebnis, seine Bekehrung und der Traditionsinhalt des verkündigten Evangeliums zueinander verhalten? b) Wie Paulus die Gewißheit seiner Berufung durch die beweisende Haltung der kirchlichen Gemeide erhält?

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Bacsó István244 -- 268

Die persönlichen und kollektiven tragischen Erfahrungen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts haben den französischen Philosophen Emmanuel Lévinas dazu geleitet, das bekannte biblische Gebot wieder ins Licht zu bringen. Der Imperativ, du sollst nicht töten hat in der Philosophie von Lévinas eine paradigmatische Funktion. Auf einer Seite unterstreicht Lévinas die göttliche Originalität des Verbotes, auf der anderen Seite betont er, dass diese Aufforderung fürs jeweilige Ich gültig ist, denn auf dem Gesicht des anderen steht immer zu lesen: Du sollst nicht töten!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Kozma Zsolt82 -- 86Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)BibliographyOld Testament, Various
Fekete Károly107 -- 109Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)AnnouncementPractical theology
Peres Imre707 -- 711Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)In memoriamNew Testament
Simon János192 -- 202

Many archaeologists are involved in excavations in the lands of the Bible, and each year an increasing number collection of artefacts are unearthed that offer us a glimpse on the background of the biblical history and texts. This article presents the top archaeological findings connected to the Bible, reported in 2018. The incredible treasures from the tomb of prophet Jonah came to light thanks to tunnels dug by ISIS. The “Yerushalayim” inscription on an ancient column dated to 100 B.C. is the first known appearance of the name of Jerusalem in Hebrew or Aramaic written in stone. The clay pomegranate found at Tel Shiloh is dating back to the First Iron Age, to the times of the Tabernacle of ancient Shiloh. An extremely rare seal impression discovered at Jerusalem’s Western Wall plaza and bearing the inscription “Belonging to the governor of the city” confirms specific biblical information. A tiny stone weight engraved with ancient Hebrew letters spelling the word Beka, dating to the First Temple period, was discovered in situ on the north of the early City of David. During the renewed excavations at the foot of the Southern Wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a minuscule bulla or seal impression was discovered, with the text probably reading “Isaiah the prophet”. It was discovered in the same layer where some years ago a similar seal impression was found with the inscription: “Belonging to King Hezekiah of Judah.”

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Fekete Csaba353 -- 376

This poem was composed by an unknown author to be sung according to the Geneva tune of the 45th Psalm (first published in 1545). The poem has never been published previously, having survived in an 18th century collection of biblical histories, in versified form, together with other prayers and Reformed church hymns. The main ideas of this poem clearly differ from the earlier version of the Song of songs composed in 1584 by an unitarian poet, Miklós Bogáti Fazakas. The 18th century poet was possibly a young minister or a college teacher. It is uncertain, but not impossible, that the author was a former student of the Debrecen Reformed College, since more than twenty members of the family, which preserved this manuscript, had studied in Debrecen bet-ween the middle 17th and the 19th centuries. This poem is the closest possible versification of the Hungarian version of the biblical text according to the Bible of Vizsoly from 1590, available in later editions. The poem does not emphasise that this biblical book would refer to the relationship between Christ and his Church. However, the Latin titles added all over the sections, identified as belonging to Bride and Bridegroom, or Sponsus and Sponsa, reflect the same allegorical view, following father Origen, and usually adopted by Protestant commenta-tors, including Calvin.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleHymnology
Bak Áron681 -- 688

In dieser kunstgeschichtlichen Studie wird vom reformierten Pfarrer, Áron Bak, Theologe und Maler (1945–2012) der Malerlaufbahn von Henri Rousseau skizziert. Es wird über dessen Verbindung und Freundschaft mit dem ungarischen Kunsthändler und Maler József Brummer geschrieben und das von Rousseau gemalte Porträt Josef Brummers dargesetellt.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleArt history
Simon Attila229 -- 243

This paper discusses the lamentation genre of the Old Testament literature. Lamentation is connected to mourning, and can be found in the historical, prophetic and wisdom literature of the Old Testament. The genre is closely associated with the history of biblical Israel. Research concluded that the two dirges of David are unlikely to follow ancient qînâ-compositions. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the qînâ-texts in prophetic literature would not derive from early Israelite sources. However, positive evidence in this regard remains inconclusive due to our lack of access to those ancient sources mentioned in biblical literature.

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleOld Testament
Simon János667 -- 680

In the article below, I offer a systematic overview of the financial and accounting regulations in Romania, of the church’s internal regulations regarding financial and accounting obligations and customs, as well as some of the accounting principles. This article addresses primarily reformed pastors, church auditors and office managers who work with church bookkeeping, accounting and finances, but it can also be used by students, who inevitably need to become familiar with the rules of bookkeeping and financial management.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleOther
Adorjáni Zoltán105 -- 106Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)BibliographyNew Testament, Various
Orosz Otília Valéria645 -- 666

The history of men’s church choir in the Reformed Church of Cehu Silvaniei (Szilágycseh) dates back to more than a hundred years. Since its inception, it has taken a well-organised form, which like the presbyteries had its own management and financial fund. The men’s choir plays an exemplary role for singing culture in maintaining continuity, maintaining a repertoire of vocals preserved and passed on for decades, and in enhancing the quality of church and funeral services.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Enghy Sándor5 -- 16

Luke 24:31 relies on 2 Kgs 6:17. The terminology used in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament translation and the Greek Septuagint can be recognised behind the Syriac Peshitta and Hebrew New Testament translations. The morphological forms are passed on to the New Testament via the mediation of the Septuagint, although the verbal forms also expose the knowledge of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The intertextual relations of 2 Tim 4:17–18 suggest that this text is a summary of the entire Pauline corpus and, in a certain sense, the entire Scripture as well.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Fischl Vilmos631 -- 644

The author is a senior research fellow of the National University of Public Service and General Secretary of the Ecumenical Council of Churches in Hungary. He is an expert in international affairs, a Lutheran pastor, holding a PhD in Military Sciences. The author explores how the churches in Hungary can cooperate with the state in order to create security in Hungary and in other parts of the world. Readers may gain an understanding of the tasks and services of the Ecumenical Council and its member churches in Hungary with special regard to the helping of the persecuted Christians.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology, Spirituality
Bagosi József153 -- 191

The author sums up the results of 30 years of exploration within all available ecclesiastical and archival documents. The author also collected data from the living traditions from ethnographic sources in the county. He illustrates his contentions with archive materials and newly made photos.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Simon János341 -- 352

This article discusses aspects related to the Jewish self-governance in the 1st century A.D. We attempt to inquire into the following questions: What powers did the Sanhedrin who condemned Jesus have during the Roman rule? Did it have any authority to inflict death penalty? What were the rules of procedure in case of the Sanhedrin?

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleNew Testament
Koppándi Botond-Péter466 -- 480

A certain crisis has been around in the American Protestant preaching since the 1960’s. It was a crisis caused by boredom in the pews: people were listening to good sermons about the Christian faith, but they were not ignited by the flame of a real faith! The New Homiletic movement addressed this crisis offering narrative, inductive-style sermons, where the ancient Rhetorical notion of ‘delighting’ or delectare has become a key in turning the Christian faith into a personal conviction. Stories became regular parts of preaching, people felt a personal connection with the main characters in the stories, and suddenly they felt a close relationship with the Gospel manifested through these stories. This study presents the beginnings of the ‘narrative turn’ and discusses the necessity of more narrative, inductive-style, story-centered preaching from the Hungarian Protestant pulpits.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology
Görözdi Zsolt481 -- 493

Diese Studie untersucht das 4. Kapitel der Offenbarung aus homiletischer Sicht. Der Text (als Predigttext), der direkt auf die Kapitel 1–3 reagiert, verkündet die Botschaft in der Form- sprache der apokalyptischen Gattung. Eine Predigt über diesen Text fordert einen spezifischen Zugang, der das kodierte Kerygma zu finden versucht, während sie auch die durch apokalyptische Mittel angegebene Form ernst nimmt. Die Studie konzentriert sich auf das Narrative, (auf Geschehnisse) der Off. 4, den himmlischen Gottesdienst und die Herrschaft Gottes und zeigt, daß diese mit den zwei Hymnen des Kapitels und dem Verhalten der Hymne-Singenden zusammen die Botschaft bilden, die in der zeitgenössischen protestantischen Predigt wichtige gemeindebauende Funktion einnimmt.

Református Szemle 112.5 (2019)Research articlePractical theology, New Testament