Journal index

Gaál Botond509 -- 522

Numerous debates are evoked nowadays based on the disability of establishing an interdisciplinary harmony between Christian thought and exact sciences. It may therefore be necessary to review the main fields of the human intellect, thus sciences, philosophies, arts, religions, and Christian theology. The present study provides an overview of these areas focused on their subjects, methods and views, aiming to clarify its title.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Szász Tibor András607 -- 624

This paper is a revised version of a lecture presented on October 16, 2018, in a conference entitled “Diminishing Church, Increasing Responsibilities”, organised by the Union of Reformed Ministers in Transylvania. The author, who is also trained in church law, experiments with interdisciplinary methods. He is active as a spiritual counsellor and mentor even outside the church. He argues that the main danger for the church is not its diminishing numbers but rather its disintegration and dissolution, loosing it main traits, attractiveness and impact. He points to fields where the church needs to change its perspectives and be more effective.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articlePractical theology, Spirituality
Kolumbán Vilmos József62 -- 78

This paper presents the apology of János Bodola, professor of Nagyenyed, accused of heresy in 1791. Like his accused associate, Bodola also dismissed the charge of heresy, but did not deny that theological thinking should be renewed. In his letter, he also rejected Arminian, Pelagian, and Universalist accusations, stood up to Samuel Endemann’s orthodoxy, and condemned the lack of consensus among the confessions. According to his letter, Bodola was a supporter of the Reformed liberal orthodoxy who in matters of principles of faith remained devoted to the creeds of reformed confessions, without secluding himself from the innovations within theology.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Ősz Sándor Előd436 -- 448

Die Studenten der reformierten Hochschulen haben sich in der Frühen Neuzeit ins Immatrikulationsbuch der Hochschulen handschriftlich mit der Formel Ego N. N. subcribo legibus scholae reformatae... eingetragen. Die 1895 im Klausenburg (ung. Kolozsvár, heute Cluj-Napoca) gegründete Reformierte Theologische Fakultät hat dieser Tradition unter ihren Studenten als Praxis wieder eingeführt. Ab der Gründung der Hochschule in Klausenburg bis 1948 hat sich jeder Student handschriftlich immatrikuliert. Bei der Immatrikulation sollte neben seinen Namen jeder auch noch sein Geburtsort, die Name und den Beruf des Vaters oder Widerhaltes angeben, sowie das Gymnasium wo er dem Abitur abgelegt hatte und weitere Daten über seinen Kenntnissen in Fremdsprachen im Immatrikulationsbuch einführen. Die statistische Verarbeitung dieser Angaben macht uns möglich spannende Daten und merkwürdige Zusammenhänge über der sozialen Herkunft und Hintergrund der Pfarrergesellschaft der reformierten und teilweise über der ungarischlutherischen Pfarrer in Siebenbürgen zu erschließen.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Petrov Anita287 -- 305

This study deals with the life and works of minister, teacher and bishop Lajos Erőss (1857– 1911). The first part of the article focuses on his theological studies. In the second part, we address various aspects of his ministry in the church and his activity as a bishop.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Kulcsár Árpád170 -- 193

This paper discusses the necessity of dialogue about the topic of creation among theology, philosophy and natural sciences. I argue that philosophy has a bridge-building role between theology and natural sciences. I aim to show why the mediation of philosophy cannot be neglected, and why a holistic approach in such an important theme as creation is necessary. I shall also invoke the ideas of László Ravasz (1882–1975) and point out that the synthesis which he argued for in his scientific papers is still useful today.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Ledán M. István484 -- 508

In this paper we present the main theories concerning the interpretation of 1 Peter 3:19. The entire vocabulary of this problematic text is analysed in details, attempting to draft which of the previous theories best fit the current context. 1 Peter 4:6 is also examined in passing, aiming to determine the relation between 1 Peter 3:19 and 4:6. Besides we give a kerygmatic explanation of the text in order to formulate its message for the readers of our days.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Kolumbán Judit678 -- 690

The idea of moving the theological education from Nagyenyed/Aiud to Kolozsvár/Cluj was born in the middle of the 19th century. Domokos Szász, former reformed priest from Kolozsvár/Cluj, and from 1885 bishop of the Transylvanian Reformed Church, was the most prominent supporter of founding the new centre of theological training in Kolozsvár/Cluj. After long debates and preparations, the construction of the new theological institute was completed in 1895. The current study presents the press debates around this event, offering an insight into press articles published in Kolozsvár/Cluj, concentrating mainly on the Erdélyi Híradó (Transylvanian News) a newspaper supporting the party opposing the moving of the theological training to Kolozsvár/Cluj. These articles throw light on the diverging positions regarding this event.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Bak Áron587 -- 606

Áron Bak (1945–2012) reformierter Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler prüft zunächst aus wirkunggeschichtlichem Gesichtspunkt, wie in der bildenden Kunst und Literatur das Thema des Menschenopfers, genauer Isaks (1. Mose 22, 1–19) und Iphigeneias Aufopferung dargestellt und gedeutet wird. Nachher werden von ihm die eigenartigen Züge der von dem Jahvisten stammenden Erzählung hervorgehoben, er skizziert deren Struktur, und erörtert den Zusammenhang zwischen dem ritualen Opfer und der nichtintellektuellen alttestamentlichen Glaubensauffassung, und der unerschütterlichen Sicherheit. Die Studie endet mit folgender Zussammenfassung: „Der Mensch trachtet eifrig Gottes wirklichen oder gewähnten Befehlen Genüge zu tun und möchte seinen eigenen Glauben beweisen.Aber er denkt nicht immer daran,dass er, während er unter seelischen Qualen seinen Glauben beweisen will, auch dem anderen, den er sich als Opfer für Beweis seines Glaubens in Anspruch genommen hat, Qualen bereitet. Gott brauchte es niemals und er wird es auch niemals brauchen im Interesse der Beweisung unseres eigenen Glaubens andere aufzuopfern.“

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleArt history
Kolumbán Vilmos József56 -- 61

The attack against the ideas of illumination was at the same time the last desperate attempt of the Transylvanian reformed orthodox theology at the Synod of Küküllővár in 1791, when János Zilahi Sebes and János Bodola were indicted for spreading the teachings of arminian, socionian and pelagian theology. He defended himself in an exhaustive testimony and also defended the book of the German reformed professor, Samuel Endemann, used in Transylvanian schools as manual of dogmatic theology.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Bodnár Lajos410 -- 435

Jókai’s works have rarely been examined with respect to their religious content. In this study, I propose an analysis from this particular perspective, examining the Scripture quotations and paraphrases, metaphorical expressions and prayers of one of this author’s most famous novels, A kőszívű ember fiai (The Heartless Man’s Sons). These references attest, on the one hand, to Jokai’s faith and religious practice, and, on the other, to means of expressing the writer’s thoughts more intensely and more sensitively. Exploring and analyzing further religious aspects of the novel will be the task of future studies.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Gánóczy Sándor278 -- 286

Why is there such an interest among modern Christians, in particular Reformed and Lutheran theologians, for Jesuit spiritual exercises? My answer can only be hypothetical. But one thing is certain. The spiritual exercises of Saint Ignatius of Loyola have an immortal soul. Thus, despite the old-fashioned character of some of its parts seeking for a reformation, in its entirety, it is able to promise spiritual benefits to Christians in this modern world as well.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology, Church history, Spirituality
Adorjáni Zoltán456 -- 457Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)ReviewSystematic theology
Béres Levente133 -- 169

N. T. Wright’s approach to the historical-Jesus-debate throws a new light on the resurrection quest. In his view, the ultimate question of the ’resurrection research’ should be: what happened on that first Easter that has ultimately led to the early Christianity and its faith? Early Christianity’s answer is that Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified, has risen. Nobody was there on that moment and still, we have two historically secure indications: the empty grave and Jesus’ appearances. These two are important and appropriate backgrounds for the belief that Jesus was really risen from the dead.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Zamfir Korinna345 -- 348

Doctor honoris causa címmel tüntették ki dr. Gánóczy Sándor emeritus professzort Kolozsváron.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)ReportSystematic theology, Church history
Herczeg Pál475 -- 483

Ist 1. Petrus 3,18–22 eine Taufrede, dann kann der Bibeltext nicht bloß als eine Lehre und Verpflichtung angesehen werden, sondern hier ist auch ein Gewissheit bietender Trost zu finden: Vielleicht leben, oder werden die Christen in Sintflut leben, aber die Arche, bzw., was die Arche als Vorbild zeigen will, die Taufe ist jene Möglichkeit, die Gott „den Gerechten und Untadligen“ angeboten hat. Diese Perikope sagt mit anderen Worten das Selbe, was in den Briefen an die Römer, Galater und Kolosser von der Taufe geschrieben ist, aber hier wurzelt die Lehre über die Taufe in einem weiteren geschichtlichen und heilgeschichtlichen Kontext. Zugleich gibt diese Bibelstelle sehr betont Weisungen und Hoffnung den Lesern hinsichtlich ihrer aktuellen gesellschaftlichen, menschlichen Situation.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Juhász Tamás662 -- 677

Vortrag, gehalten am 16. Oktober 2018 in Szováta, im jährlichen Konvent des Pfarrvereins der Siebenbürgisch-Reformierten Landeskirche. In der ersten Hälfte des Aufsatzes gibt der Verfasser je eine globale und eine lokale Lagebeschreibung. Der heutigen globalen Selbstgefährdung der Menschheit (einem Auswuchs des „westlichen“ Geistes) wird eine nicht minder sichtbare, aber jene zerstörerische Kraft weit übertreffende andere globale Macht entgegengestellt: die umfassende Macht des Geistes Gottes, repräsentiert durch die Gemeinschaft der Geheiligten, aber präsent nicht nur in der Kirche. Die lokale Lagebeschreibung präsentiert die siebenbürgische reformierte Kirche als Minderheitenkirche, als Kirche an der Grenze von Ost und West und als Volkskirche, mit den spezifischen Aufgaben, die aus diesen drei Charakteristika abzuleiten sind. In der zweiten Hälfte wird das Zukunftsbild der Siebenbürgisch-Reformierten Landeskirche nicht mehr so umfassend entworfen, wohl aber an einem wunden Punkt kritisch betrachtet. Dieser wunde Punkt ist die heutige Verfassungsform der Institution „Kirche“. Dazu benützt der Verfasser einerseits eine ironische literarische Gattung, die der „Uchronie“: auf die Frage, „Was wäre geschehen, wenn...?“ folgt die Beschreibung eines Zeitablaufs, der nicht geschehen ist, aber hätte geschehen können. Andererseits wird aus den „Siebenbürgischen 95 Thesen“, einer Thesenreihe, die junge Pastoren zum Reformationsjubiläum zusammengestellt haben, das Kapitel über die Erneuerung des Pfarrerstandes positiv gewertet. Am Ende des Aufsatzes folgen vier kurze Thesen über die Zukunft, wie sie aus christlich-reformierter Perspektive (Bibel und Katechismus) begründet wird.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleMissiology
Hermán M. János379 -- 438

Abraham Kuyper’s travels to Romania (1905) and Hungary (1916) is not widely known. In his travel book entitled Om de oude Wereld-zee (Around the Ancient World Sea), he describes his traveling around the Mediterranean Sea. The first chapter of his book outlines the threats coming from Asia and an analysis of Islam. The book also contains sixty pages about Romania in which Kuyper compares Romania to Belgium. Kuyper was also received by the Romanian royal family. He foresees a great future for the Romanian people, even though they do not excel in practicing their orthodox faith.

Református Szemle 110.4 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán5 -- 12Református Szemle 110.1 (2017)AnnouncementSystematic theology
Krecht Gyöngyvér281 -- 298

The performances organized by the educational institution at the turn of the century contributed not only to the aesthetic education of students but also to the evolution of style of the town and its vicinity. The festivities held on the occasion of birth or death anniversaries of political or clerical notorieties, school advocates, writers and poets, the plaque from Zabola, and, moreover, the ceremonious screenplays invented for the inauguration of the school’s flag remained essential elements of the contemporary social life.

Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Buzogány Dezső544 -- 548Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)ReportChurch history
Tőkés István165 -- 170

D. dr. István Tőkés (1917–2016), professor of New Testament, explained the Holy Scriptures as an exegete committed to serving the church, staying on the fundament of the writings of the Reformation. A witness to this attitude is this short personal notice in which he clarifies the meaning of ‘I believe in the Holy Spirit’.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articleSystematic theology
Magyar Balázs Dávid500 -- 519

The consolidation of the entire law system of Hungary during the 19th century (e. g. laws of 38/1868, 34/1874, 43/1895, and 33/1896) created a brand-new alliance between Austria (ruled by the Habsburg-house) and Hungary, which paved the way for the practical fulfillment of the Kiegyezés (Compromise / Ausgleich) in 1867. This special legal situation influenced not only the everyday life but also the higher educated levels of the so-called “Reformed Church of Hungary”. In this sparkling intellectual sphere, several essays, books, and cyclopedia were published related to the history of the Reformation and the life of John Calvin. Among the pieces of this irretrievable literary heritage, the collection of Calvin-biographies (1864−1906) written in Hungarian bears a distinctive role. In spite of the rich history of Hungarian Calvin-research, the several portraits of Calvin illuminated by these biographies have not been examined until now. Among the prominent representatives of the Hungarian Calvin researchers, Imre Révész did the first substantial contribution to the opening of the closed world of Calvin’s collective memories in Hungary. One of his best-known books was the Life of Calvin (1864). It was the first biography of Calvin published in Hungarian. However, Révész’s evaluation of Calvin’s personality and his role for example in Servetus’ death caused a long-standing debate in the published and the unpublished works of Calvin-researchers as well. Namely, Révész and his famous follower, Ferenc Balogh (1864), believed the reformer was “quite innocent” in the death penalty of Servetus, but their literary “opponents”, for instance Ferenc Szilágyi (1864), Pál Schneider (1877), Károly Szász (1878), Lajos Warga (1887), Ferenc Kanyaró (1891), and Jenő Zoványi (1908), depicted Calvin as a bloodthirsty tyrant, dictator of Geneva who persecuted intellectual freedom entirely.

Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Ledán M. István363 -- 378

Biblical dreams are obviously very important for those who deal with the history or psychology of dreams. The question is whether they are indeed relevant also for the catechesis? This study argues that biblical stories in which dreams play a great importance could and should be presented through the lenses of these dreams. By means of the dreams of Joseph and the vision of Peter we aim to sketch the catechetical potential of the biblical stories.

Református Szemle 110.4 (2017)Research articlePractical theology
Ledán M. István268 -- 280

In Calvin’s eschatological reflection the intermediate state of the believer is of primary importance. After death the soul leaves body, the body (and only the body) falls into sleep, the soul, however, rests by God. The perfect happiness of the soul is not diminished by the fact that in this intermediate state one still has to wait for the resurrection. Although Calvin uses platonic terminology in order to clarify his ideas, the scriptural content usually overwrites this platonic terminology. The prudence, ingenuity, critical acumen, erudition, and biblical thinking of Calvin make his eschatological cogitations worthy of (re)considering for his 21st century readers, too.

Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)Research articleSystematic theology