Journal index

Bak Áron203 -- 212

In der Studie wollte uns der reformierte Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler Áron Bak (1945–2012) vorstellen, wie in der Malerei am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts und im 20. Jahrhundert die dynamische Bewegung durch Treppenmotive dargestellt wurde. Er stellt fest: Marcel James Duchamps und George James Framtons Bilder mit ihren Treppenmotiven widerspiegeln, daß Raum und Zeit, das heißt, daß das einheitliche Weltall, sowohl die menschliche als auch die göttliche Welt in sich zusammenfaßt, denn beide sind ja mit Goldtreppen miteinander verbunden.

Református Szemle 112.2 (2019)Research articleArt history
Papp Zsolt377 -- 392

As a theologian Niebuhr is best known for his “Christian Realism” which emphasized the persistent roots of evil in human life. In his works he stressed the egoism, the pride and hypocrisy of nations and classes. Later he saw these as ultimately the fruit of the insecurity and anxious defensiveness of humans in their finiteness. On the political field, his activities were influenced by his socialist-Christian convictions. Later he broke with the Socialist Party over its pacifist and non-interventionist attitude in foreign policy. He also constantly criticized the so-ciety dehumanized by the technological era.

Református Szemle 112.4 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Orosz Otília Valéria645 -- 666

The history of men’s church choir in the Reformed Church of Cehu Silvaniei (Szilágycseh) dates back to more than a hundred years. Since its inception, it has taken a well-organised form, which like the presbyteries had its own management and financial fund. The men’s choir plays an exemplary role for singing culture in maintaining continuity, maintaining a repertoire of vocals preserved and passed on for decades, and in enhancing the quality of church and funeral services.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleChurch history
Bacsó István244 -- 268

Die persönlichen und kollektiven tragischen Erfahrungen des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts haben den französischen Philosophen Emmanuel Lévinas dazu geleitet, das bekannte biblische Gebot wieder ins Licht zu bringen. Der Imperativ, du sollst nicht töten hat in der Philosophie von Lévinas eine paradigmatische Funktion. Auf einer Seite unterstreicht Lévinas die göttliche Originalität des Verbotes, auf der anderen Seite betont er, dass diese Aufforderung fürs jeweilige Ich gültig ist, denn auf dem Gesicht des anderen steht immer zu lesen: Du sollst nicht töten!

Református Szemle 112.3 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology
Enghy Sándor5 -- 16

Luke 24:31 relies on 2 Kgs 6:17. The terminology used in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament translation and the Greek Septuagint can be recognised behind the Syriac Peshitta and Hebrew New Testament translations. The morphological forms are passed on to the New Testament via the mediation of the Septuagint, although the verbal forms also expose the knowledge of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The intertextual relations of 2 Tim 4:17–18 suggest that this text is a summary of the entire Pauline corpus and, in a certain sense, the entire Scripture as well.

Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)Research articleOld Testament, New Testament
Fekete Károly107 -- 109Református Szemle 112.1 (2019)AnnouncementPractical theology
Fischl Vilmos631 -- 644

The author is a senior research fellow of the National University of Public Service and General Secretary of the Ecumenical Council of Churches in Hungary. He is an expert in international affairs, a Lutheran pastor, holding a PhD in Military Sciences. The author explores how the churches in Hungary can cooperate with the state in order to create security in Hungary and in other parts of the world. Readers may gain an understanding of the tasks and services of the Ecumenical Council and its member churches in Hungary with special regard to the helping of the persecuted Christians.

Református Szemle 112.6 (2019)Research articleSystematic theology, Spirituality
Szegedi László Tamás625 -- 639

This paper is a revised version of a lecture presented on October 16, 2018, in a conference entitled “Diminishing Church, Increasing Responsibilities”, organised by the Union of Reformed Ministers in Transylvania. The author, general director of the Reformed Church District of Transylvania, sketches the new challenges awaiting the church workers of diminishing congregations in the fields of catechisation, bible study, youth work, diaconia, and leader training.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)EssayMissiology
Gaal György306 -- 336

This study presents the life and activity of Sándor Berde (1856–1894). Berde was born in a little village in Seklers’ Land. He studied in and graduated from the Reformed College of Nagyenyed (Aiud). He continued his studies in Vienna, Jena and Basel. He became an adherent of the liberal theology having a predilection for scientific results instead of the old religious teachings. During his studies in Jena, he specialized himself in New Testament theology. After his return to Transylvania, he became the missionary minister of the parish in Kackó (Câţcău). Eight other villages belonged to his parish. The Hungarian population lived very scattered in this area, continually diminishing in number. So the minister was in a very difficult situation. In 1889 Berde took the private-docent-exam at the Nagyenyed Theological Academy. This was the period of the foundation of the Reformed Theological Faculty of Kolozsvár (Cluj). So the Church Council elected Berde as a professor of the Faculty in Kolozsvár, and sent him temporarily to teach at Nagyenyed. This was a very unpleasant situation. He taught there New Testament for four school years being much appreciated by his colleagues and the students. He died of tuberculosis. Though he was the very first professor of the Faculty of Kolozsvár, he is never mentioned as such in historical works. He is mostly appreciated as the father of his children: one daughter became a novelist, the other a painter; the youngest son was a famous dermatologist.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Adorjáni Zoltán7 -- 24

Diese Arbeit ist eine redaktierte Version eines Vortrags. Darin werden die Eroberungen von Alexander des Großen und die palästinischen Ereignisse in der Regierungszeit der Ptolemaischen und Seleukidischen Könige skizziert. Es wird hier, auf dem Grunde des 1 Makkabäer dargestellt, wie sich die typologische Schriftauslegung im Laufe des 2. Jahrhunderts nach Christus erneuert und verstärkt hat.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleOld Testament, Judaica
Kolumbán Vilmos József194 -- 202

This text edition presents the opinion of the Reformed bishop, Zsigmond Eperjesi, and the eparchial notary, Máté Keresztes, in the case of Samuel Endemann. As their documents make clear, the bishop and the eparchial notary were representatives of the orthodox Reformed church, and determined supporters of the creeds of the traditional Reformed church. The letter reveals that the investigation of Endemann was initiated by the leaders of the Reformed church. In his letter, the bishop briefly stated his view that Endemann’s manual contradicted the creeds of the Reformed Church in Transylvania, even if in these ideas had long been canonized in Western theological thought. Following the Endemann investigations, János Bodola and János Zilahi Sebes received instructions from the Consistory and the Reformed Church leadership that Endemann’s manuals should not be used in educating systematic theology.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Source editionChurch history
Gaál Botond509 -- 522

Numerous debates are evoked nowadays based on the disability of establishing an interdisciplinary harmony between Christian thought and exact sciences. It may therefore be necessary to review the main fields of the human intellect, thus sciences, philosophies, arts, religions, and Christian theology. The present study provides an overview of these areas focused on their subjects, methods and views, aiming to clarify its title.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Szász Tibor András607 -- 624

This paper is a revised version of a lecture presented on October 16, 2018, in a conference entitled “Diminishing Church, Increasing Responsibilities”, organised by the Union of Reformed Ministers in Transylvania. The author, who is also trained in church law, experiments with interdisciplinary methods. He is active as a spiritual counsellor and mentor even outside the church. He argues that the main danger for the church is not its diminishing numbers but rather its disintegration and dissolution, loosing it main traits, attractiveness and impact. He points to fields where the church needs to change its perspectives and be more effective.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articlePractical theology, Spirituality
Kolumbán Vilmos József62 -- 78

This paper presents the apology of János Bodola, professor of Nagyenyed, accused of heresy in 1791. Like his accused associate, Bodola also dismissed the charge of heresy, but did not deny that theological thinking should be renewed. In his letter, he also rejected Arminian, Pelagian, and Universalist accusations, stood up to Samuel Endemann’s orthodoxy, and condemned the lack of consensus among the confessions. According to his letter, Bodola was a supporter of the Reformed liberal orthodoxy who in matters of principles of faith remained devoted to the creeds of reformed confessions, without secluding himself from the innovations within theology.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Ősz Sándor Előd436 -- 448

Die Studenten der reformierten Hochschulen haben sich in der Frühen Neuzeit ins Immatrikulationsbuch der Hochschulen handschriftlich mit der Formel Ego N. N. subcribo legibus scholae reformatae... eingetragen. Die 1895 im Klausenburg (ung. Kolozsvár, heute Cluj-Napoca) gegründete Reformierte Theologische Fakultät hat dieser Tradition unter ihren Studenten als Praxis wieder eingeführt. Ab der Gründung der Hochschule in Klausenburg bis 1948 hat sich jeder Student handschriftlich immatrikuliert. Bei der Immatrikulation sollte neben seinen Namen jeder auch noch sein Geburtsort, die Name und den Beruf des Vaters oder Widerhaltes angeben, sowie das Gymnasium wo er dem Abitur abgelegt hatte und weitere Daten über seinen Kenntnissen in Fremdsprachen im Immatrikulationsbuch einführen. Die statistische Verarbeitung dieser Angaben macht uns möglich spannende Daten und merkwürdige Zusammenhänge über der sozialen Herkunft und Hintergrund der Pfarrergesellschaft der reformierten und teilweise über der ungarischlutherischen Pfarrer in Siebenbürgen zu erschließen.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Petrov Anita287 -- 305

This study deals with the life and works of minister, teacher and bishop Lajos Erőss (1857– 1911). The first part of the article focuses on his theological studies. In the second part, we address various aspects of his ministry in the church and his activity as a bishop.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Kolumbán Judit678 -- 690

The idea of moving the theological education from Nagyenyed/Aiud to Kolozsvár/Cluj was born in the middle of the 19th century. Domokos Szász, former reformed priest from Kolozsvár/Cluj, and from 1885 bishop of the Transylvanian Reformed Church, was the most prominent supporter of founding the new centre of theological training in Kolozsvár/Cluj. After long debates and preparations, the construction of the new theological institute was completed in 1895. The current study presents the press debates around this event, offering an insight into press articles published in Kolozsvár/Cluj, concentrating mainly on the Erdélyi Híradó (Transylvanian News) a newspaper supporting the party opposing the moving of the theological training to Kolozsvár/Cluj. These articles throw light on the diverging positions regarding this event.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Kulcsár Árpád170 -- 193

This paper discusses the necessity of dialogue about the topic of creation among theology, philosophy and natural sciences. I argue that philosophy has a bridge-building role between theology and natural sciences. I aim to show why the mediation of philosophy cannot be neglected, and why a holistic approach in such an important theme as creation is necessary. I shall also invoke the ideas of László Ravasz (1882–1975) and point out that the synthesis which he argued for in his scientific papers is still useful today.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Ledán M. István484 -- 508

In this paper we present the main theories concerning the interpretation of 1 Peter 3:19. The entire vocabulary of this problematic text is analysed in details, attempting to draft which of the previous theories best fit the current context. 1 Peter 4:6 is also examined in passing, aiming to determine the relation between 1 Peter 3:19 and 4:6. Besides we give a kerygmatic explanation of the text in order to formulate its message for the readers of our days.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Bak Áron587 -- 606

Áron Bak (1945–2012) reformierter Pfarrer, Theologe und Maler prüft zunächst aus wirkunggeschichtlichem Gesichtspunkt, wie in der bildenden Kunst und Literatur das Thema des Menschenopfers, genauer Isaks (1. Mose 22, 1–19) und Iphigeneias Aufopferung dargestellt und gedeutet wird. Nachher werden von ihm die eigenartigen Züge der von dem Jahvisten stammenden Erzählung hervorgehoben, er skizziert deren Struktur, und erörtert den Zusammenhang zwischen dem ritualen Opfer und der nichtintellektuellen alttestamentlichen Glaubensauffassung, und der unerschütterlichen Sicherheit. Die Studie endet mit folgender Zussammenfassung: „Der Mensch trachtet eifrig Gottes wirklichen oder gewähnten Befehlen Genüge zu tun und möchte seinen eigenen Glauben beweisen.Aber er denkt nicht immer daran,dass er, während er unter seelischen Qualen seinen Glauben beweisen will, auch dem anderen, den er sich als Opfer für Beweis seines Glaubens in Anspruch genommen hat, Qualen bereitet. Gott brauchte es niemals und er wird es auch niemals brauchen im Interesse der Beweisung unseres eigenen Glaubens andere aufzuopfern.“

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleArt history
Kolumbán Vilmos József56 -- 61

The attack against the ideas of illumination was at the same time the last desperate attempt of the Transylvanian reformed orthodox theology at the Synod of Küküllővár in 1791, when János Zilahi Sebes and János Bodola were indicted for spreading the teachings of arminian, socionian and pelagian theology. He defended himself in an exhaustive testimony and also defended the book of the German reformed professor, Samuel Endemann, used in Transylvanian schools as manual of dogmatic theology.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history
Bodnár Lajos410 -- 435

Jókai’s works have rarely been examined with respect to their religious content. In this study, I propose an analysis from this particular perspective, examining the Scripture quotations and paraphrases, metaphorical expressions and prayers of one of this author’s most famous novels, A kőszívű ember fiai (The Heartless Man’s Sons). These references attest, on the one hand, to Jokai’s faith and religious practice, and, on the other, to means of expressing the writer’s thoughts more intensely and more sensitively. Exploring and analyzing further religious aspects of the novel will be the task of future studies.

Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology
Gánóczy Sándor278 -- 286

Why is there such an interest among modern Christians, in particular Reformed and Lutheran theologians, for Jesuit spiritual exercises? My answer can only be hypothetical. But one thing is certain. The spiritual exercises of Saint Ignatius of Loyola have an immortal soul. Thus, despite the old-fashioned character of some of its parts seeking for a reformation, in its entirety, it is able to promise spiritual benefits to Christians in this modern world as well.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)Research articleSystematic theology, Church history, Spirituality
Adorjáni Zoltán456 -- 457Református Szemle 111.4 (2018)ReviewSystematic theology
Juhász Tamás662 -- 677

Vortrag, gehalten am 16. Oktober 2018 in Szováta, im jährlichen Konvent des Pfarrvereins der Siebenbürgisch-Reformierten Landeskirche. In der ersten Hälfte des Aufsatzes gibt der Verfasser je eine globale und eine lokale Lagebeschreibung. Der heutigen globalen Selbstgefährdung der Menschheit (einem Auswuchs des „westlichen“ Geistes) wird eine nicht minder sichtbare, aber jene zerstörerische Kraft weit übertreffende andere globale Macht entgegengestellt: die umfassende Macht des Geistes Gottes, repräsentiert durch die Gemeinschaft der Geheiligten, aber präsent nicht nur in der Kirche. Die lokale Lagebeschreibung präsentiert die siebenbürgische reformierte Kirche als Minderheitenkirche, als Kirche an der Grenze von Ost und West und als Volkskirche, mit den spezifischen Aufgaben, die aus diesen drei Charakteristika abzuleiten sind. In der zweiten Hälfte wird das Zukunftsbild der Siebenbürgisch-Reformierten Landeskirche nicht mehr so umfassend entworfen, wohl aber an einem wunden Punkt kritisch betrachtet. Dieser wunde Punkt ist die heutige Verfassungsform der Institution „Kirche“. Dazu benützt der Verfasser einerseits eine ironische literarische Gattung, die der „Uchronie“: auf die Frage, „Was wäre geschehen, wenn...?“ folgt die Beschreibung eines Zeitablaufs, der nicht geschehen ist, aber hätte geschehen können. Andererseits wird aus den „Siebenbürgischen 95 Thesen“, einer Thesenreihe, die junge Pastoren zum Reformationsjubiläum zusammengestellt haben, das Kapitel über die Erneuerung des Pfarrerstandes positiv gewertet. Am Ende des Aufsatzes folgen vier kurze Thesen über die Zukunft, wie sie aus christlich-reformierter Perspektive (Bibel und Katechismus) begründet wird.

Református Szemle 111.6 (2018)Research articleMissiology
Béres Levente133 -- 169

N. T. Wright’s approach to the historical-Jesus-debate throws a new light on the resurrection quest. In his view, the ultimate question of the ’resurrection research’ should be: what happened on that first Easter that has ultimately led to the early Christianity and its faith? Early Christianity’s answer is that Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified, has risen. Nobody was there on that moment and still, we have two historically secure indications: the empty grave and Jesus’ appearances. These two are important and appropriate backgrounds for the belief that Jesus was really risen from the dead.

Református Szemle 111.2 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Zamfir Korinna345 -- 348

Doctor honoris causa címmel tüntették ki dr. Gánóczy Sándor emeritus professzort Kolozsváron.

Református Szemle 111.3 (2018)ReportSystematic theology, Church history
Herczeg Pál475 -- 483

Ist 1. Petrus 3,18–22 eine Taufrede, dann kann der Bibeltext nicht bloß als eine Lehre und Verpflichtung angesehen werden, sondern hier ist auch ein Gewissheit bietender Trost zu finden: Vielleicht leben, oder werden die Christen in Sintflut leben, aber die Arche, bzw., was die Arche als Vorbild zeigen will, die Taufe ist jene Möglichkeit, die Gott „den Gerechten und Untadligen“ angeboten hat. Diese Perikope sagt mit anderen Worten das Selbe, was in den Briefen an die Römer, Galater und Kolosser von der Taufe geschrieben ist, aber hier wurzelt die Lehre über die Taufe in einem weiteren geschichtlichen und heilgeschichtlichen Kontext. Zugleich gibt diese Bibelstelle sehr betont Weisungen und Hoffnung den Lesern hinsichtlich ihrer aktuellen gesellschaftlichen, menschlichen Situation.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)Research articleNew Testament
Simon János547 -- 554

This article remembers Rev. Antal Mihály Nagy and presents his work as a theologian. For some generations to come he will surely be remembered as the „Israel-theologian” of the Hungarian Reformed Church. As a former student of his, I remember his conviction that Israel and the Church, sharing the same covenant, are inseparable. Secondly, I remember his strong belief that a history of Israel cannot be written apart from the credo of Israel. Finally, I remember his open attitude towards his students, his clear preaching and his humble way in presenting his life-long experiences and theological explanations. The article acknowledges his deep interest in theological education and spiritual formation of his students at the Reformed Theological Academy of Sárospatak.

Református Szemle 111.5 (2018)In memoriamChurch history, Old Testament
Tonhaizer Tibor47 -- 55

Even though the ancient solar cult goes back to the early days of the Roman Republic, it had to wait for a long time to gain far-reaching acceptance. Emperors were fond of increasing the influence of Deus Sol in society on both political and religious grounds. Initially, they took great care to ensure that their personal prestige remained more important than that particular influence. However, during the late Principate-period, with the continuous growth of syncretistic and monotheistic tendencies, the cult of the Sol Invictus increased the people’s reverence towards the ‘creators’ of the cult. The purpose of this study is to examine this process in the light of religious policy and philosophical research.

Református Szemle 111.1 (2018)Research articleChurch history