Journal index

Adorjáni Zoltán5 -- 12Református Szemle 110.1 (2017)AnnouncementSystematic theology
Hermán M. János379 -- 438

Abraham Kuyper’s travels to Romania (1905) and Hungary (1916) is not widely known. In his travel book entitled Om de oude Wereld-zee (Around the Ancient World Sea), he describes his traveling around the Mediterranean Sea. The first chapter of his book outlines the threats coming from Asia and an analysis of Islam. The book also contains sixty pages about Romania in which Kuyper compares Romania to Belgium. Kuyper was also received by the Romanian royal family. He foresees a great future for the Romanian people, even though they do not excel in practicing their orthodox faith.

Református Szemle 110.4 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Buzogány Dezső544 -- 548Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)ReportChurch history
Tőkés István165 -- 170

D. dr. István Tőkés (1917–2016), professor of New Testament, explained the Holy Scriptures as an exegete committed to serving the church, staying on the fundament of the writings of the Reformation. A witness to this attitude is this short personal notice in which he clarifies the meaning of ‘I believe in the Holy Spirit’.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articleSystematic theology
Krecht Gyöngyvér281 -- 298

The performances organized by the educational institution at the turn of the century contributed not only to the aesthetic education of students but also to the evolution of style of the town and its vicinity. The festivities held on the occasion of birth or death anniversaries of political or clerical notorieties, school advocates, writers and poets, the plaque from Zabola, and, moreover, the ceremonious screenplays invented for the inauguration of the school’s flag remained essential elements of the contemporary social life.

Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Magyar Balázs Dávid500 -- 519

The consolidation of the entire law system of Hungary during the 19th century (e. g. laws of 38/1868, 34/1874, 43/1895, and 33/1896) created a brand-new alliance between Austria (ruled by the Habsburg-house) and Hungary, which paved the way for the practical fulfillment of the Kiegyezés (Compromise / Ausgleich) in 1867. This special legal situation influenced not only the everyday life but also the higher educated levels of the so-called “Reformed Church of Hungary”. In this sparkling intellectual sphere, several essays, books, and cyclopedia were published related to the history of the Reformation and the life of John Calvin. Among the pieces of this irretrievable literary heritage, the collection of Calvin-biographies (1864−1906) written in Hungarian bears a distinctive role. In spite of the rich history of Hungarian Calvin-research, the several portraits of Calvin illuminated by these biographies have not been examined until now. Among the prominent representatives of the Hungarian Calvin researchers, Imre Révész did the first substantial contribution to the opening of the closed world of Calvin’s collective memories in Hungary. One of his best-known books was the Life of Calvin (1864). It was the first biography of Calvin published in Hungarian. However, Révész’s evaluation of Calvin’s personality and his role for example in Servetus’ death caused a long-standing debate in the published and the unpublished works of Calvin-researchers as well. Namely, Révész and his famous follower, Ferenc Balogh (1864), believed the reformer was “quite innocent” in the death penalty of Servetus, but their literary “opponents”, for instance Ferenc Szilágyi (1864), Pál Schneider (1877), Károly Szász (1878), Lajos Warga (1887), Ferenc Kanyaró (1891), and Jenő Zoványi (1908), depicted Calvin as a bloodthirsty tyrant, dictator of Geneva who persecuted intellectual freedom entirely.

Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Ledán M. István363 -- 378

Biblical dreams are obviously very important for those who deal with the history or psychology of dreams. The question is whether they are indeed relevant also for the catechesis? This study argues that biblical stories in which dreams play a great importance could and should be presented through the lenses of these dreams. By means of the dreams of Joseph and the vision of Peter we aim to sketch the catechetical potential of the biblical stories.

Református Szemle 110.4 (2017)Research articlePractical theology
Buzogány Dezső649 -- 658

László Musnai, pastor and theology professor. His work and activity can not be listed into one specific theological area. Considering his basic qualification, he is a New Testament scholar, on which field he has written his phd thesis. But if we look at his other books and publications we can say, that he is as good in Bible-translating or in church history, as in biblical studies. As far as his social and educational activity is concerned, he was a prominent church leader and appreciated teacher as well. So, he did not isolate himself into the ivory tower of science, but took an active part of the everyday life wherever his calling brought him to. With a vast life and scientific experience he was wholeheartedly committed to the Hungarian Reformed Church in Transylvania in general, and to the Gábor Bethlen middle school in particular. His example should be a guiding star for each of us.

Református Szemle 110.6 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Ledán M. István145 -- 164

On one occasion Jung asked the awkward question: how can a theologian, who really believes in God, affirm that God does not speak trough dreams? Indeed, may one seriously assert that God corrects, rebukes and encourages us through dreams in these days too? Can dreams help us in tomes of crisis, for instance, in the mourning process? In this paper, we attempt to answer those questions based on the experts of the subject, and taking into consideration the authority of the Bible.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articlePractical theology
Ledán M. István268 -- 280

In Calvin’s eschatological reflection the intermediate state of the believer is of primary importance. After death the soul leaves body, the body (and only the body) falls into sleep, the soul, however, rests by God. The perfect happiness of the soul is not diminished by the fact that in this intermediate state one still has to wait for the resurrection. Although Calvin uses platonic terminology in order to clarify his ideas, the scriptural content usually overwrites this platonic terminology. The prudence, ingenuity, critical acumen, erudition, and biblical thinking of Calvin make his eschatological cogitations worthy of (re)considering for his 21st century readers, too.

Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)Research articleSystematic theology
Fazakas Sándor480 -- 499

This lecture endeavours to answer the following questions: In what sense was the 500th anniversary of the Reformation different from any previous celebrations? What is the relationship between modernity and the Reformation? Does the Reformation have a formative role in the contemporary society? This study breaks with the traditional and linear interpretation of modernity and offers reverse methodology. Starting from the vantage point of the modern society, it examines the religious and theological impulses, and those interfaith dynamics that can have a role in shaping/modelling a peaceful coexistence of cultures and religions. These impulses are: the necessary interaction between various branches of science and religion in the academic setting; the value of the spiritual/theological interpretation of reality in our society; the freedom of conscience and religious thought in the secular state and in the church; and the preservation of self-identity in the age of mass manipulation. Pondering over these issues can and will make our celebration more relevant in the contemporary setting.

Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)Research articleSystematic theology, Church history
Bak Áron195 -- 201

Art historians argue that a painting of Anthony van Dyck from around 1620, kept in the National Gallery of Arts in Budapest, depicts John, the evangelist. However, nothing on the painting confirms this interpretation. In his short study, minister and painter Áron Bak, brings art historical and biblical arguments that the painting does not represent the evangelist John but Jesus Christ accepting the cup of suffering.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articleNew Testament, Art history
Adorjáni Zoltán349 -- 362

Diese Arbeit ist die redaktierte Wiedergabe jenes Vortrags, der im Herbst 2016 im christlichkulturellen Zentrum, Posticum (Oradea/Großwardein) gehalten wurde, mit dem Zweck dem Ökumenismus Wege zu öffnen und die Annäherung zwischen den Konfessionen zu fördern. Die Arbeit zeigt zuerst den geschichtlichen Hintergrund der jüdisch-samaritanischen Feindschaft. Es werden aus der Begegnugsgschichte Jesu mit der Samaritanerin solche Momente hervorgehoben, die im konfessionellen Zwiegespräch paradigmatisch gelten könnten.

Református Szemle 110.4 (2017)Research articleNew Testament
Kolumbán Vilmos József632 -- 648

The attack against the ideas of illumination was the last desperate attempt of the Transylvanian reformed orthodox theology at the Synod of Küküllővár in 1791, when János Zilahi Sebes and János Bodola were indicted for spreading the teachings of arminian, socionian and pelagian theology. He defended himself in an exhaustive testimony and also defended the book of the German reformed professor, Samuel Endemann, used in Transylvanian schools as a manual of dogmatic theology.

Református Szemle 110.6 (2017)Source editionChurch history
Hodossy-Takács Előd133 -- 144

Zsigmond Varga, snr. was a pioneer in the field of Religious Studies in Hungary. His life and fate remarkably reflects and mirrors the history and fate of Hungary during the historically tense 20th century. The present study attempts to show the connections and reflections between Zsigmond Varga’s life-events and the historical tragedies and developments in Hungary. The seven decades of his life reflects five significant periods of Hungarian history from the very last golden age of Hungary during the end of the 19th century until the post-World War II communist era. The present study argues that the central issue of his legacy is the incorporation of the study of religions in the curriculum of theological training.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articleChurch history, New Testament
Székely Csilla Imola249 -- 267

This paper presents a summary of Sándor Makkai’s lifework (1890–1951) focusing on his frequent appeals to reform. This study concentrates on those publications in which he reassesses national, ecclesiastical and personal issues. I offer a review of the situation of the church, the theological education, the components of the national pedagogy and minority politics. We also perceive his major achievements as a pastor, as a theological professor and as the bishop of the Transylvanian Reformed Church District. He was critical towards the practices and beliefs of his age, and his reforms aimed to reach the most divergent issues. He raised existential questions, encouraged the members of his nation of a minority status. He superseded his age with his vision, so that some of those still wait to be accomplished. Sándor Makkai was the loud conscience of his generation.

Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)Research articlePractical theology
Balogh Csaba463 -- 479

Resurrection is one of the central topics in Christian theology, widely discussed within both christology and anthropology. This idea deriving from the New Testament is deeply rooted in Old Testament texts, or, more precisely, in a particular interpretation of those texts. However, this later approach of the New Testament and contemporary Judaism to Old Testament passages speaking about resurrection raises significant questions for current Christian readers who, on the one hand, are familiar with the historical-critical reading of the Bible, and, on the other, strive to be faithful to their tradition. This paper seeks for answers concerning the discrepancy between a responsible exegetical enterprise and the fidelity towards the ecclesial tradition. It maintains that the current reader needs to distinguish between the statement of Christian theology (“the Lord has risen”) and its argumentation (based on Old Testament references). The statement is primarily rooted in the personal experience of eyewitnesses, while the argumentation bears all signs of contemporary time bound hermeneutics.

Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)Research articleOld Testament
Fónyad Pál552 -- 553Református Szemle 110.5 (2017)ReportOther
Murádin Jenő187 -- 194

In Central and Eastern Europe, the pluriform cultural historical picture was determined by the flourishing of national arts, as well as the arrival and establishment of artists from countries far away. The painter Iacob Graf, spelled in Hungarian as Jakab Gráf, arrived from Switzerland to Transylvania. His heritage is of exceptional documentary value, but he was also a noticeable teacher of art. Through several decades he laid the foundations of the pedagogy of drawing and directed many generations towards the love of arts.

Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)Research articleChurch history
Rezi Elek213 -- 214Református Szemle 110.2 (2017)ReportChurch history, Practical theology
Adorjáni Zoltán336 -- 343Református Szemle 110.3 (2017)BibliographyNew Testament