Journal index

A folyóirat teljes tartalmában való keresés elérhető ebben a repozitóriumban.
Bak Áron1201 -- 1211Református Szemle 100.5 (2007)Különféle
Gaal György1327 -- 1351

A kolozsvári egyetem felállítása után még a teológia sorsa maradt kérdéses. Már az egyetem alapítása körüli csatározásokban felmerült annak lehetősége, hogy létesítsenek egy protestáns teológiai kart is Kolozsvárt, hisz a fővárosi egyetemen volt római katolikus hittudományi kar. Erre nem került sor. Az igény azonban fennállt, hogy a lelkészképzést is egyetemi szintre kell emelni, bármilyen költséges legyen ez. Az 1870-es évektől az egész erdélyi reformátusságot megosztó pártvita középpontjába került a kérdés, hogy a kiépítés a már hagyományosnak számító Nagyenyeden, vagy pedig a püspöki székhelynek számító egyetemi városban, Kolozsváron történjék-e. Ennek a vitának az egyik központi harcosa, megtérő vezéregyénisége volt Bartók György. Élete legtermékenyebb két évtizedét ebben a harcban töltötte el, s minden álma az volt, hogy bölcseletet tanítson a leendő teológusoknak. Tudását Erdély-szerte elismerték, kitartását püspöki székkel jutalmazták, de tanári katedrát csak átmenetileg kaphatott.

Református Szemle 100.6 (2007)Egyháztörténet
Kenderesi István128 -- 137

The purpose of the Epistle to the Hebrews. In this essay we argue that the particular purpose of Hebrews is obscure for the modern reader. It is clear, that it was addressed to a particular community that needed to be warned not to apostatize, not to turn away from Christianity. But no dogmatic conclusion can be reached on a more precise identification of the danger could consist in. The drift of the argument on the levitical cultus, the exhortations and argumentations from the exposition of so many Old Testament passages would possibly give weight to the theory that the danger was that of relapsing into Judaism, a theory held by numerous scholars. However, this is an inference, though reasonable. But each further step in order to identify the exact form of the apostasy to Judaism will be conjectural. What we can tell from the thoughts expressed in the epistle is that the author wants to reassure his recipients in their faith, to inspire them by pointing to the HighPriest Christ, and to reinstate them in the characteristic Christian features of their faith, warning them of the immeasurable loss in case they would give up their belief in Christ.

Református Szemle 100.1 (2007)Újszövetség
Horváth Levente576 -- 589

The Missiological [re]Interpretation of Abraham’s Offering, As a Potential Paradigm-Shift in [post]Modern Philosophical and Theological Reasoning. Consideration has to be taken in new view of the striking and in many ways mysterious and scandalous narrative of Abraham’s offering his son, Isaac on the mountain of Moriah. It was with Kierkegaard that this Old Testament story came to the forefront of philosophical investigations. The Danish philosopher marvelled on the obedience of the Patriarch in not even wavering (although certainly accepting the deadly burden of the angst which entails this action) to act without really understanding why Yahweh has asked for such a terrible sacrifice. Abraham is eulogized as the ‘knight of faith’, but Levinas has a different view of the story, more closely of the ‘Kierkegaardian Abraham,’ and as such opts more for a kind of ‘knight of action’ in a responsible undertaking of compassion and empathy toward the Other human being, and of the act of looking into the God-given image of the Other One. Thus he seems to put the emphasis on the second part of the narrative when God’s Angel intervenes and Levinas marvels (and opts) for this second kind of obedience based on a second Word coming from the same Yahweh, which, curiously enough, could not take Abraham by surprise, despite the seemingly contradictory demand of the God of Israel this time. In Levinas we face the embodiment of concern and responsibility as the ultimate ethical demand, when the father looks into the face of his son, and the face of the Other, as that of Abel and tells him: “Thou shalt not kill!” This inherent ‘categoricus imperativus’ reflecting on the human face of the Other is the ethical stage, and Levinas criticised Kierkegaard for replacing this ethical stage illegitimately by the religious one. The uncritically embraced neo-Kantian patterns are still lurking with both philosophers, despite the post-modern claims made especially by Levinas. The story still serves as a paradigm-shift taking place at the borderline of modernity and postmodernity, which of course will survive for long concomitantly in contemporary reasoning and in ongoing moral debates both locally (I am critically evaluating to some extent in this study Tavaszy’s philosophy as well on the matter as it emerged locally), as well as globally. Yet, the interpretation of the ‘akkedah’ of Abraham seems not to be near of completion neither with neo-Kantians and existentialists, nor with theological hermeneutics listed above. The narratives of the Moriah event, as well as the whole Genesis context of it, and beyond, the whole Old Testament-context of the Abrahamic Covenant serves us with a new missiological challenge, as Abraham and successively Israel, and finally the Messiah-Seed plays the role of a ‘missionary priesthood’ in order to bring all the nations under the blessings of salvation promised to Abraham exclusively and fulfilled through him inclusively in the whole world. After twenty centuries of Systematic theology engaging itself exclusively in a dialogue only with Western philosophy, the post-modern age might be in due time kept opened up at last to a different kind of dialogue, such as with missiology. The challenge of a new paradigm-shift emerging out of this dialogue is expected to determine the theology of mission in order to become the very mission of theology itself. That impulse would bring Christian theology and theistic ethics back again to its real and primordial state.

Református Szemle 100.3 (2007)Rendszeres teológia, Missiology
Csáki Árpád930 -- 965

The Autobiography of Gyula Mihaly Szigethy. The „peregrinatio academica” is a well documented topic of the transylvanian cultural history from the 17–18th century. Szigethi Gyula Mihály (1758–1837) was one of the thousands of young people, who choosed to travel thousands of miles in order to continue their studies in western-European universities. After finishing the college of Marosvásárhely (Tg. Mures) –one of the best transylvanian calvinist schools of his time –, thanks to the financial support of count Joseph Teleki, he attended the universities of Marburg, Göttingen, Stuttgart and Viena in the period between 1786–1790. Returning home he choosed not to become a priest as it would be a custom in those times, earninig his living for a few years as a privateprofessor in the courts of local nobils. In 1797 ha was ellected professor of the college from Udvarhely (Odorheiul Secuiesc), where he made a carrier, retiring in 1823. In this time he published among others articles about the history of the town and the college of Udvarhely. Although his journal written between 1786–1790 no longer exists, his autobiography –published in our article– written in 1833 contains important datas about the transylvanian educational system from the late 18th and the beginning of the 19th century.

Református Szemle 100.4 (2007)Egyháztörténet
Makay Botond Károly1122 -- 1130

Az alábbi, 2000-ben elhangzott beszélgetés óta sok minden változott, de sok minden nem változott. A fiatalember felett is eltelt hét szűk esztendő. Állapota romlik, állandóan romlik. Ma már nincsenek megrendelései, mert amiben hét évvel ezelőtt mintegy zseni volt, ma már egy közepes középiskolás is tudja. A tolókocsi is rég előkerült a fürdőszobából, mert immár mintegy két éve csak azon tud közlekedni. Meghalt a nagymama is, így vagyonkájának is részben ő az örököse. A másik örökös a nagymama, nyugalmazott mérnök-katonatiszt fia, aki szintén meglehetősen nyomorék, ő gondoskodik arról, hogy a „Kölyök” ne éhezzék. Talán még az tartja benne a lelket, hogy a világhálón néha megnézi, hátha van valami újdonság a szépnevű betegségével kapcsolatban.

Református Szemle 100.5 (2007)EsszéKülönféle
Papp György190 -- 194

By the Sound of a Great Crowd. In this short writing our purpose is to examine the problems of translation and interpretation of Jeremiah 11,16. In this biblical verse the word hmlh has many possibilities of translation. After a short presentation of the biblical background I will examine the Hungarian, English, German, Dutch, French, Greek and Latin translations of this biblical verse, and finally I will present my own translation. At the end of this paper I am going to draw a parallel between the meanings of this image in the Old and New Testament. The Hebrew dictionaries given many meanings of the word hmlh: roaring sound, tempest and crowd. The LXX renders the word hmlh by circumcision, which is grammatically impossible. Hieronymus translates it with loquella, which means speaking. In Calvin’s Latin translation we read sermo, and in an additional note tumultus. In the German translations we can read große (Kriegs-) Getöse, ein großes Geprassel, Mordgeschrei. In the French translations we read about un bruit fracassant and au bruit d’un grand fracas. The Dutch versions translate it either by tempest, or by een geluid van een groot geroep. The majority of the English translations keep the ambivalence of the text, translating the word hmlh with tumult. But Robert Davidson translates it by tempest, and in other less known English translations we find: But I will set you on fire, fire that will blaze with a mighty roar – He has set fire to it, and its branches are consumed with a great roaring sound. Finally I have suggested the following translation: By the sound of a great crowd He has set fire to it. According to this translation the meaning of this biblical passage is changing as follows: the secret sin will be followed by a public punishment – As the thief is shamed when he is discovered, so the house of Israel is shamed (Jer 2,26). As a New Testament parallel we should read John 15,1–8.

Református Szemle 100.1 (2007)Ószövetség
Bustya Dezső273 -- 277

Nehéz helyzetben lehet az a lelkipásztor, aki ma a Heidelbergi Káté (HK) tanításába kezd. Két lehetőség közt választhat. Az egyik az, hogy a Káté szövegét minden magyarázat nélkül egyszerűen bemagoltatja a konfirmandusokkal. Alapos okom van azt hinni, hogy a lelkészek nagyobbik része ezen az úton jár.

Református Szemle 100.2 (2007)Gyakorlati teológia
Pásztori-Kupán István644 -- 656

The Hypostatic Union of Jesus Christ in the Light of Fifth-century Terminological Disputes. The present essay investigates the validity of the term hypostatic union at the outbreak of the Nestorian controversy with special focus upon Cyril of Alexandria’s Twelve Anathemas and on the reply given to them by Theodoret of Cyrus. In the light of the newly discovered evidence presented by Marcel Richard and Luise Abramowski one can conclude that the word u

Református Szemle 100.3 (2007)Rendszeres teológia
Buzogány Dezső734 -- 745

Laymen Institution in the Hungarian Reformed Church District of Transylvania. It has been disputed for the last few decades the possible presence and task of the laymen in the church government of the 16–18. Centuries Hungarian Reformed Church life in Transylvania. Arguments have been brought up to prove that as soon as the 16th century the West-European type Presbyterium has already started to gain terrain in the church. The study tries to come up with arguments to prove that the democratic church government according to which the Swiss, English, German, Dutch reformed churches had been doing the government in the 16–17 centuries was not present only in the synods’ records and has not became reality in the Transylvanian church life. Peter Melius bishop of Debrecen was the one, who has found out, that the Presbiterial institution did not fit to the structure of Transylvanian and Hungarian society, consequently he put up the new adapted structure of the local churches as well, as that of the deaneries.

Református Szemle 100.4 (2007)Egyháztörténet
Farkas Antal1160 -- 1167Református Szemle 100.5 (2007)Különféle
Győri István1289 -- 1294

A kezdeti időkben – a mai szóhasználat szerinti – tudományos cikkek alig-alig jelentek meg az Újszövetség területéről. A hatvanas évektől, de még inkább a hetvenes évektől már bővebben találunk ilyen írásokat. 1978-ban az akkor hetvenéves folyóirat addigi munkáját Tőkés István, akkori főszerkesztő részletesen feldolgozta és értékelte, így az azt megelőző korral nem is kívánok részletesen foglalkozni.

Református Szemle 100.6 (2007)SzaktanulmányÚjszövetség
Balogh Csaba22 -- 45

Der Stele Jahves. Sammlungen von Fremdvölkersprüchen in den prophetischen Schriften des Alten Testaments. In der heutigen Prophetenforschung wurde die Frage nach der Entstehung der Prophetenbücher zentralgestellt. Vornehmliche Andacht haben dabei die kleineren Kollektionen dieser Bücher gewonnen. Die vorliegende Studie ist den theologischen und literarischen Aspekten der Sammlungen von Fremdvölkersprüchen in den Büchern der Propheten Amos, Jesaja, Jeremia, Ezechiel und Zephaniah gewidmet. Hier wurde die Frage nach dem theologischen Prinzip dieser Kollektionen gestellt, und zwar auf Kollektionsebene und auf Buchebene. Welcher Gedanke hält die verschiedenen Fremdvölkersprüche zusammen und welcher bestimmt den Platz der Kollektionen in dem Buch, in dem sie jetzt stehen? Wie weit kann man ein gemeinsames theologisches Ordnungsprinzip hinter den Sammlungen der verschiedenen Bücher aufweisen, und wie weit sind diese Kollektionen buchspezifisch? Die oft betonte Meinung, dass vier von den oben genannten Büchern (mit Ausnahme von Amos) einer eschatologischen Strukturierung folgen, muss man ernsthaft in Zweifel ziehen. Statt einer Dreiteilung wird man eher auf einen starken Zusammenhang zwischen den Prophezeiungen gegen Israel und die Völker aufmerksam gemacht. Die Völker sind nur im Zusammenhang mit Jahves Urteil über Israel wichtig. Was aber darüber in den verschieden Büchern vor die Leser gestellt wird, kann voneinander abweichen. Inkongruenz zwischen unterschiedlichen theologischen Positionen treffen wir nicht nur dann an, wenn wir Kollektionen aus verschiedenen Büchern miteinander vergleichen, sondern auch innerhalb desselben Buches. Die Sammlungen haben sich vermehrt und sind nach verschiedenen Auffassungen umgearbeitet worden, was die Aufspürung theologischer Positionen verschiedener Redaktorenkreise äußerst schwierig macht. Es fällt aber auf, dass die Sammlungen von Fremdvölkersprüchen in den meisten Fällen kennzeichnende Leitworte, Überschriften und Motive aus dem Buch übernehmen. Sie sind also nicht nur buchspezifisch, sondern auch dazu bestimmt, um im Kontext der betreffenden Bücher gelesen zu werden. Es gibt aber auch Motive, die suggerieren, dass manche Redaktorengruppen ihre Arbeit in Verbindung miteinander verrichteten, oder sogar dieselben Gruppen in einem gewissen Stadium der Entstehung der Bücher für die Bearbeitung der Kollektionen verschiedener prophetischer Schriften verantwortlich waren (z.B. der Gebrauch der Ziffer Sieben, oder geographische Motive als Ordnungsprinzip bei Amos, Jeremia und Ezechiel, oder der Einfluss des Tages Jahves als theologischer Gedanke bei Jesaja und Zephaniah).

Református Szemle 100.1 (2007)SzaktanulmányÓszövetség
Somfalvi Edit363 -- 397

The Possibilities of Spritual Care by Means of Story-telling in the Early Childhood. The first part of the essay describes the development of little children, with special attention to their spiritual growth, then we study the possibilities of pastoral counselling by storytelling (understood as a collective action), and the effect of the stories on the children’s thinking. In the second part of the essay – after a comparative analysis of a story and a bible-story – a few practical pieces of advise follow for pastors and counsellors, who deal with little children, advise on possibilities of preventing spiritual problems at such a sensitive age.

Református Szemle 100.2 (2007)SzaktanulmányGyakorlati teológia