Református Szemle 100 / 3 (2007)

Editoria

Adorjáni Zoltán(479--479)

Egyéb

Studium

Adorjáni Zoltán(481--488)

Milyen választ kaphatunk Kálvin Jánostól korunk szorongató kérdéseire? Ezt a számbavételt kezdte el több földrész számos országának ötven teológusa 2007. április 15–19. között, a John Knox Nemzetközi Református Otthon, a Svájci Protestáns Egyházszövetség, a Református Világszövetség és a Genfi Egyetem Teológiai Fakultása meghívására Genfben tartott értekezletén.

Egyháztörténet, Rendszeres teológiaKálvin János, kálvinizmus, reformáció
Zwingli Ulrich(489--493)

Fordította Jakab Sándor.

Rendszeres teológiaZwingli Ulrich
Adorjáni Dezső Zoltán(494--505)

Rendszeres teológiaglobalizáció, egyház és társadalom
Bustya Dezső(506--514)

The Problem of Suffering in the Holy Scripture. Suffering is one of the universal problems of mankind. Generally saying, everybody suffers to some extent in a part of his or her life. Corporal suffering has a great influence ont he state of mind, and vice versa. We are searching the reason, the purpose the suffering in human experience, in philosophy and in the same way in the Holy Scripture. In this study the author makes an attempt to lighten the answers of the Bible in the following problems: the different kinds of suffering, the origin and the purpose of it, the problem of the substitute suffering, the Servant of the Lord, the sufferings of Christians and of the Church, the human behaviour under suffering, the blessing of it; the suffering, which leads to death and finally: the suffering in the salvation counsel of God. The conclusion of the study is the following: suffering may be probation or an educational instrument of the Lord’s, which is included in his eternal plan of salvation. The blood of Christ purifies us from every sin, but in this earthly life we need the permanent purificatory work of God as long so as to reach we will be transformed to the similitude of the Son of God.

Rendszeres teológiaszenvedés
Dávid István(515--536)

Die theologische Beurteilung der Erinnerung und des Vergessens. Der Fragenkreis der Erinnerung und des Vergessens wird in der Heiligen Schrift – abgesehen von einigen Ausnahmen – nicht in seiner psychologischen Bedeutung dargestellt. Alle mit der Erinnerung und dem Vergessen verbundenen menschlichen Tätigkeiten, die zwar anthropologischen Charakter haben, sind Glaubenstätigkeiten, die ihren Sinn in der Gott – Mensch-Beziehung erhalten. Die Aufforderung zur Erinnerung ist ein solcher Befehl, der die Tätigkeit des jeweiligen Christen bestimmen muss. Die Erinnerung ist die Ausübung des Glaubens: in Demut, Gebet, Gastfreundlichkeit, Diakonie, Liebe und Achtung einander gegenüber. Sie ist die missionarische, seelsorgerliche und kathechetische Aufgabe einer Fest begehenden Gemeinde. Sie ist ein ethischer Imperativ, doch reicht sie über alle Moraltätigkeiten hinaus, weil sie ihren Sinn und Inhalt nicht von den menschlichen Beziehungen, sondern vom ewigen Gott erhält. Was in der Glaubenssprache Erinnerung heißt, das ist in der Sprache der Ethik: Tat. Was in der Sprache des Glaubens Vergessen heißt, das nennt man in der Ethik Selbstopferung und Demut. Was in der Sprache der Ethik Erinnerung ist, das wird in der Sprache des Glaubens Erkennung der Gnade genannt. Was in der Sprache der Ethik Vergessen heißt, das bedeutet in der Sprache des Glaubens, dass wir uns selbst und Gott für nichts achten.

Rendszeres teológiaemlékezés, felejtés
Boer Dick(537--551)

„Wir sind von Gott erkannt“. Einführung in die Theologie Miskottes. Kornelis Heiko Miskotte, geboren 1894 in Utrecht. Dort studierte er auch Theologie. Pfarrer in der Niederländischen Reformierten Kirche, zuletzt (1938–1945) in Amsterdam. 1945–1959 Professor für Dogmatik und biblische Theologie an der Universität von Leiden. Wichtigere Werke: Das Wesen der jüdischen Religion, Edda und Thora, Biblisches ABC. Sein Hauptwerk ist: Wenn die Götter schweigen. Über den Sinn des Alten Testaments (1959). Er starb 1976. In seinem Buch: »Biblisches ABC« spricht Miskotte davon, daß wir unsere eigenen Urworte beim Lesen der Bibel mit hineinbringen, obwohl diese unsere Urworte in der Schrift überhaupt nicht vorkommen. Diese Worte sind: Ewigkeit, All, Natur, Religion, Persönlichkeit, Tugend und Ideal. Unsere europäische, vom Christentum geprägte Kultur ist, im Grunde genommen unbiblisch. Diese unsere Urworte beinhalten nämlich alle ein gründliches Missverständnis dessen, was die Bibel uns in ihren Worten ans Herz legen will. Nach Miskotte dienen sie nur dazu „den Abgrund des Grenzenlosen zu camouflieren“. Sie versuchen die Erfahrung der Grenzenlosigkeit zu verdrängen. Es ist das Lebensgefühl der Neuzeit: grenzenlos ist die Freiheit, alles zu können, alles zu dürfen. Unsere auf diese Worte gebaute Kultur hat es in sich nihilistisch zu werden, zu erkennen, dass im Grund alles nichts, umsonst, sinnlos und ziellos ist. Diese Erkenntnis ist für Miskotte grundlegend, er hat diesen Nihilismus selber immer wieder zutiefst erfahren. So wie er selber erfahren hat, dass nur uns eins aus diesem Nihilismus befreien kann: das Wort, das in den Urworten der Bibel bezeugt wird, der Name, mit dem Gott sich uns zu erkennen gibt: ich bin da, ich bin mit euch. Dies in allen Tonarten zu verkündigen ist der Kern der Theologie von Miskotte.

Rendszeres teológiaKornelis Heiko Miskotte
Ferencz Árpád(552--575)

Mit ausgestreckter Hand nach den Geheimnissen… Anmerkungen am Rande der Theologie von K. H. Miskotte. Der niederländische Theologe, Kornelis Heiko Miskotte ist einer der einflussreichsten Theologen seiner Zeit gewesen, der die Theologie Karl Barths auf eigenständige Weise bearbeitet und weitergedacht hat. Seine Theologie ist auch heute eine Quelle der Impulse für den modernen Theologen. Die vorliegende Studie hat sich als Ziel gesetzt, die Theologie Miskottes, wenigstens in ihren Hauptlinien darzustellen, bzw. deren Konsequenzen für die ungarische reformierte Theologie aufzuzeigen. Die Arbeit gleidert sich in drei Teile und eine Einleitung. In der Einleitung sagt der Verfasser, warum er der Meinung ist, daß die Theologie Miskottes heute noch relevant und wichtig für die Menschen des 21. Jahrhunderts sei. In dem ersten Teil wird versucht einen „theologischen Lebenslauf“ Miskottes aufzuzeigen, mit biographischen Angaben und Zitaten aus seinen Tagebüchen gestützt auf die Arbeit seines Sohnes über den Vater. In dem zweiten Teil werden die wichtigsten Themen der Theologie Miskottes in einer subjektiven Auswahl gezeigt. Die hier behandelten Themen sind: Der Name, die Religion, die drei Hauptypen der religiösen Menschen und in einem letzten Abschnitt die Themen: Kultur, Zeit, Bewusstsein, Offenbarung. In dem letzten Teil der Arbeit wird versucht das zu zeigen, worauf die Theologie Miskottes die ungarische reformierte Theologie aufmerksam machen kann. Dabei wird besonders Wert auf die Tatsache gelegt, dass Miskotte ein beliebter kirchlicher Theologe gewesen ist, der in seine wissenschaftliche Arbeit immer die Praxis vor Augen hielt. Es wird auch hervorgehoben, dass die systematische Theologie ihre Aussagen nicht als absolut geltende ansehen kann, sondern sie müssen immer mit den biblischen Grundstrukturen im Einklang sein. Der Theologe soll keine metaphysischen Urworte, oder Urbegriffe suchen, sondern auf die Offenbarung schauen. Theologie bedeutet auch Verpflichtung, auf Wahrheit und Methode. Miskottes Theologie erinnert die heutigen Leser und Leserinnen an die Frage wie sich die Kirche zur Kultur verhält. In der ungarischen reformierten Kirche hat die Kultur eine bedeutende Rolle. Die ermahnende Frage Miskottes Theologie ist, wie sich Kirche und Theologie zur Kultur verhalten. Auch die Schönheit muss im Lichte der Wahrheit gesehen werden. Als Endergebnis dieses Themenkreises wird es anhand der These Eberhard Jüngels formuliert, was uns auch zum Weiterdenken anregt.

Rendszeres teológiaKornelis Heiko Miskotte
Horváth Levente(576--589)

The Missiological [re]Interpretation of Abraham’s Offering, As a Potential Paradigm-Shift in [post]Modern Philosophical and Theological Reasoning. Consideration has to be taken in new view of the striking and in many ways mysterious and scandalous narrative of Abraham’s offering his son, Isaac on the mountain of Moriah. It was with Kierkegaard that this Old Testament story came to the forefront of philosophical investigations. The Danish philosopher marvelled on the obedience of the Patriarch in not even wavering (although certainly accepting the deadly burden of the angst which entails this action) to act without really understanding why Yahweh has asked for such a terrible sacrifice. Abraham is eulogized as the ‘knight of faith’, but Levinas has a different view of the story, more closely of the ‘Kierkegaardian Abraham,’ and as such opts more for a kind of ‘knight of action’ in a responsible undertaking of compassion and empathy toward the Other human being, and of the act of looking into the God-given image of the Other One. Thus he seems to put the emphasis on the second part of the narrative when God’s Angel intervenes and Levinas marvels (and opts) for this second kind of obedience based on a second Word coming from the same Yahweh, which, curiously enough, could not take Abraham by surprise, despite the seemingly contradictory demand of the God of Israel this time. In Levinas we face the embodiment of concern and responsibility as the ultimate ethical demand, when the father looks into the face of his son, and the face of the Other, as that of Abel and tells him: “Thou shalt not kill!” This inherent ‘categoricus imperativus’ reflecting on the human face of the Other is the ethical stage, and Levinas criticised Kierkegaard for replacing this ethical stage illegitimately by the religious one. The uncritically embraced neo-Kantian patterns are still lurking with both philosophers, despite the post-modern claims made especially by Levinas. The story still serves as a paradigm-shift taking place at the borderline of modernity and postmodernity, which of course will survive for long concomitantly in contemporary reasoning and in ongoing moral debates both locally (I am critically evaluating to some extent in this study Tavaszy’s philosophy as well on the matter as it emerged locally), as well as globally. Yet, the interpretation of the ‘akkedah’ of Abraham seems not to be near of completion neither with neo-Kantians and existentialists, nor with theological hermeneutics listed above. The narratives of the Moriah event, as well as the whole Genesis context of it, and beyond, the whole Old Testament-context of the Abrahamic Covenant serves us with a new missiological challenge, as Abraham and successively Israel, and finally the Messiah-Seed plays the role of a ‘missionary priesthood’ in order to bring all the nations under the blessings of salvation promised to Abraham exclusively and fulfilled through him inclusively in the whole world. After twenty centuries of Systematic theology engaging itself exclusively in a dialogue only with Western philosophy, the post-modern age might be in due time kept opened up at last to a different kind of dialogue, such as with missiology. The challenge of a new paradigm-shift emerging out of this dialogue is expected to determine the theology of mission in order to become the very mission of theology itself. That impulse would bring Christian theology and theistic ethics back again to its real and primordial state.

Rendszeres teológia, Missiologymissziológia, paradigmák, Ábrahám, szövetség, akkédáh
Juhász Zoltán(590--600)

The Relationship of the Eucharist and Reconciliation in the Didaché. The author analyzes the relation of the Eucharist and reconciliation through one of the well-known writings of the Early Church – The Lord’s Teaching to the Nations Through the Twelve Apostles. Christianity has evolved from Judaism, and despite many differences there are still numerous similarities, overlaps as the feast, liturgy, prayer, Holy Communion and the renewal of the covenant. The meaning and content of the Eucharist went through several changes during the history of the Church, and differences of opinion on this point exist even in our days. The Eucharist is an important part of Christian faith which lives in the Parousia, through this Christians are in ongoing relation with the resurrected Lord. As a result of the reconciliation of Christ, the participation of Christians in the Eucharist enforces their relation to each other. The strong relationship between the Eucharist and reconciliation is clearly stated in the 8th verse of the 4th chapter of the Didaché: “for if ye are partakers in that which is immortal, how much more in things which are mortal”.

Egyháztörténet, Rendszeres teológiaDidaché, eucharisztia, úrvacsora, megbékélés, kiengesztelődés
Püsök Sarolta(601--625)

The Life-work Which Reveals the Delusion of Christianity, the Kierkegaardian Criticism of the Church and Christianity. Entropy is a main characteristic of the human world; consequently the Church also has a similar tendency. Criticism is in symbiosis with Christian life. One of the most important critical analysis of Christianity is made by Kierkegaard. To understand his life-work from the point of view of criticism, we have to deal with three important aspects: a) The religious influence in his childhood. His family comes from the Moravian tradition; he had the opportunity to examine the dark side of this tradition as wel. b) His relationship to other personalities belonging to the golden age of Denmark. This period is characterized by the intensive reception of Hegel. Kierkegaard could not agree with the Danish Hegelians, because his consequent subjectivity was in permanent polemics with the objectivity of speculative theology. c) The methodology of Kierkegaard – interpretation. The Danish thinker used two types of communication, the direct and the indirect one. The indirect communication is characteristic for his poetical, aesthetical works. This type of communication has a maieutical character, in this manner the writer helps the reader find the truth, but he never gives formulated definitions. An other characteristic of his works are the use of pseudonym for the name of writers’. Kierkegaard protests against the quoting of this works under his own name, because he personally does not agree whit the opinion of the authors. Kierkegaard’s writings at the beginning include aspects of criticism, but in the last period he mostly attacks Christianity. In 1850 was published his Training in Christianity. In this book we can find the main points of his criticism, but after bishop Mynster’s death in 1854 his criticism becomes the sharpest. The targets of his criticism are: the erroneous Church – concept and the problem of sate Church; the cheap grace; the different sins of clergies; the insufficiency of knowledge for true Christian faith, and the discrepancy between Christian teaching and personal life of religious teachers.

Rendszeres teológiaSøren Aabye Kierkegaard
Papp György(626--635)

Theodoret of Cyrus: Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium – On Simon Magus. Here we publish a passage concerning Simon Magus from the Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium by Theodoret of Cyrus. The person of Simon Magus fades within the obscurity of legends. The published sources concerning him may be divided in three groups: the New Testament (Acts 8,5–25), the writings of the Church Fathers and the legends which arose concerning his person. All the Church Fathers present him as arch-heretic. In the introduction of this translation we will follow the way of Simon in the New Testament and in the writings of the scholars of the Early Church from his youth to his death. After having presented his life we will try to sketch out his teaching based on the available secondary sources. While Simon wrote no book from which we could reconstruct his teaching, we are acquainted with his doctrine only from the above mentioned writings. The conclusion of our introduction ends by our question concerning the possible identity of Simon of the New Testament with Simon Magus referred to by the Church Fathers.

Rendszeres teológiaKüroszi Theodorétosz, Simon mágus
Papp György(636--643)

The Passion of Christ in the Early Christian Creeds. In this short paper I present a pending question of the Christological passage of the Apostolic Confession. According to the teaching of the Bible, the passion of the Lord could not be summarized in this sentence: “he suffered under Pontius Pilate”, because the Lord has not suffered only under Pontius Pilate, but in his whole life, as we read it in the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians: “but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men” (Phil 2,7). So, the passion of Christ begins with his “keno/sij”, and his whole life can be summarized in this word: “he suffered”. After a biblical introduction through a historical analysis of the early Christian confessions I try to prove that the correct form of the Christological passage of the Apostolic Confession is the following: “[I believe] in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary and suffered; under Pontius Pilate was crucified, died, and was buried…”

Rendszeres teológiaszenvedés, Jézus Krisztus szenvedése, korai keresztyén hitvallások, Apostoli hitvallás
Pásztori-Kupán István(644--656)

The Hypostatic Union of Jesus Christ in the Light of Fifth-century Terminological Disputes. The present essay investigates the validity of the term hypostatic union at the outbreak of the Nestorian controversy with special focus upon Cyril of Alexandria’s Twelve Anathemas and on the reply given to them by Theodoret of Cyrus. In the light of the newly discovered evidence presented by Marcel Richard and Luise Abramowski one can conclude that the word u

Rendszeres teológiakrisztológia, szentháromságtan, Jézus Krisztus hüposztatikus egysége, monoteizmus, dogmatörténet
Soós Amália(657--667)

On Sámuel Köteles’ Ethical Conception and the Criticism of Kantian Ethics. The present study is a short presentation of Sámuel Köteles’ ethics, in the mirror of Transylvanian and German Enlightenment. The study proves the existence of some basic similarities between the philosophical-ethical conceptions of Kant and Fichte and on the other hand the works of the above mentioned leader of 19.th century Transylvanian culture. I considered also important to achieve a critical overview of the entire kantian ethical construction using among others Max Scheler’s points of view, the one that proves some deficient theses of Kant’s transcendental conception. Finally my presentation focuses on the great importance of Köteles’ works and the conjunction of events that made him the most excellent propagator of the kantian philosophy in Hungarian.

Rendszeres teológiaKöteles Sámuel, erkölcsfilozófia, etika, Immanuel Kant, kanti etika
Varga László(668--677)

The Origin of Sin. The origin of sin is a universally commonly discussed problem of theology. It can be clarified only from the original texts of the Bible. There we find a clear answer by its diverse teachers: Sin originates from bodily desires. In our terminology, bodily desires are the biological instincts. In the animal world instincts are specifically restricted. They are only active in necessary times and conditions; they assurae the harmony of nature. Man’s instincts are free; they are always active and biologically unrestricted. The millionaire works for more money, women are able and ready to copulate even while being pregnant, the lust for power is limitless, and even world domination can not fulfil it. Remaining uncontrolled, instincts can destroy all human societies. They must be controlled morally. Man is personally responsible to keep them under God-given moral control. That is the dignity and tragedy of being human. Instincts are biological forces, morally neutral, but by nature self-centered. Godgiven morals are always altruistic. Under the guidance of strong morals, instinct is the force that brings good economy into reality, secures family life, a well trained society. When instinct escapes from under the control of morals, it is a guideless, selfcentered, always active force, which is able to destroy every social human activity, even personal life. Human morals are always questionable. My rules are as valuable as anyone else’s. Only God-given morals can be unquestionable. That is the meaning of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: Man is free to do as he wishes, but moral laws are not under man’s will. To do what moral say is the personal and social responsibility of man. So there is a permanent battle between the moral convictions and the urgings of the instincts striving to get from under it. Consequently sin is the act of self-centered instincts getting out from under the guidance of the God-given moral rules.

Rendszeres teológiabűn, eredendő bűn
Fekete Csaba(678--680)

EgyháztörténetSzenczi Molnár Albert

Recensio

Novum

Adorjáni Zoltán(702--705)

megemlékezés, Pásztor János